The Antioxidant Effect Of Selenium On Malathion Toxicity On The Brain Of Male Wistar Rat

Project and Seminar Material for Urban and Regional Planning

The Antioxidant Effect Of Selenium On Malathion Toxicity On The Brain Of Male Wistar Rat

Chapter One


1.1. Background to the Study

The single-dose acute oral toxicity test is used in preliminary evaluation of virtually all substances of suspected biological activity. The test is based on administration of graded dosage of chemical in relation to body mass. Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide which is registered for agricultural uses and for landscape maintenance, vector control, and structural pest control (Cheeseman et al., 2004). This assessment of potential dietary exposures addresses the residues that may occur as a result of agricultural uses of malathion. Organophosphate compounds inhibit the activity of cholinesterase which is an enzyme present in several body tissues and essential for the normal function of nerves.

Selenium belongs to essential microelements. Being a constituent of one of the main antioxidant enzymes – glutathione peroxidase – it is considered to be an antioxidant (Cheeseman et al., 2004). Its possible application as a protective agent against toxic metals and compounds as well as against oxidative stress have already been studied and the outcomes have seemed to be encouraging (Brugh, 2008). Selenium alone or in combination with vitamin E has already been found to prevent oxidative stress in brain of animals exposed to cigarette smoke (Tiwaryand, 2005) chromium (Chowdhury et al., 2005) and mercury (Oser, 2005).

In living systems, oxidation is a basic part of the normal metabolic process, in which reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid) and many free radicals (hydroxyl radical (OH) and superoxide anion) are generated. Rapid production of free radicals may cause alteration in the structure and function of cell constituents and membranes and can results in human neurologic and other disorders such as cancer, diabetes, inflammatory disease, asthma, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, and premature aging. Therefore, the prevention of the above conditions requires the presence of antioxidants or the free radical scavenging molecules in the body.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Exposure of test animals or humans to sufficient dosages of malathion and its primary active metabolite, malaoxon, may result in subsequent signs of toxicity, such as salivation and sweating. Antioxidants are natural or synthetic compounds, produced in vivo, normal cell constituents, ordelivered in diets, whose main function is to fight against oxidative stress (Creighton et al., 2003), being thus able to either delay or prevent the oxidation of substrates, such as proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), lipids, DNA mutations, malignant transformations, as well as other parameters of cell damage (Luna, 2008).

Due to the role of hepatocytes in the metabolism of drugs, xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, these cells become the target of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), giving reactive oxygenated metabolites (ROM), requiring, therefore, an important antioxidant defense system (Krzystyniak et al., 2005). Among these antioxidant systems, stands out glutathione (GSH), the most abundant cellular thiol antioxidant, which exhibits numerous and versatile functions and therefore protects cells against toxicity (Prescott et al., 2002).From the above background, the study therefore examine Subacute malathion toxicity and amelioration of selenium and antioxidant on brain histology of male wistar rat

1.3 Aim / Objective of Study

To study the antioxidant effect of selenium on malathion toxicity on the brain of male wistar rat.

1.3.1. Specific Objectives

Its specific objectives are;

  1. To evaluate effects of malathion in the brain of male wistar rats.
  2. To evaluate ameliorating effects of selenium on malathion in the brain of male wistarrats.
  3. To examine microstructural changes in the brain of male wistar rats administered with malathion.

1.4 Hypotheses

Subacute administration of malathion on male wistar rat may change the enzymatic activities of antioxidant the brain.

1.5 Scope of Study

The scope of this project work involves the investigation of malathion toxicity and antioxidant activity of selenium on the brain of male wistar rats.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The relevance of this study lies on the importance it provides on the ameliorating effect of selenium regarding the toxicity of malathion in the brain which could be useful to the general public.

The Antioxidant Effect Of Selenium On Malathion Toxicity On The Brain Of Male Wistar Rat

Project Material Download

3,000 Naira

The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…

Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • The Antioxidant Effect Of Selenium On Malathion Toxicity On The Brain Of Male Wistar Rat

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply

  Contact Our Help Desk

You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search

Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria

The Antioxidant Effect Of Selenium On Malathion Toxicity On The Brain Of Male Wistar Rat


This research material “The Antioxidant Effect Of Selenium On Malathion Toxicity On The Brain Of Male Wistar Rat” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”. is only providing this material “The Antioxidant Effect Of Selenium On Malathion Toxicity On The Brain Of Male Wistar Rat” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

How to defend your research work

This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:

1. Prepare For Questions:

If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “The Antioxidant Effect Of Selenium On Malathion Toxicity On The Brain Of Male Wistar Rat“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.

2. Strong Summary:

Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.

3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:

Not knowing your topic “The Antioxidant Effect Of Selenium On Malathion Toxicity On The Brain Of Male Wistar Rat” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.

4. Conclusion:

Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.