Antimicrobial And Phytochemical Properties Of Youngcocos Nucifera(Coconut) Water And Methalonic Extract Of The Youngcocos Nucifera(Coconut) Husk Microbial Contamination Of Yoghurt

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology

Antimicrobial And Phytochemical Properties Of Youngcocos Nucifera(Coconut) Water And Methalonic Extract Of The Youngcocos Nucifera(Coconut) Husk Microbial Contamination Of Yoghurt

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction and Literature Review

1.1 Introduction

Medicinal plants represent a rich source of antimicrobials and many other drugs. The potentials of higher plants as source for new drugs is still largely unexplored. Antibiotic resistance has become a global concern (Westhet al., 2004). The clinical efficacy of many existing antibiotics is being threatened by the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens (Bandow, 2003). Many infectious diseases have been known to be treated with herbal remedies throughout the history of mankind. Natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardized plant extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity.

There is a continuous and urgent need to discover new antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical structures and novel mechanisms of action for new and re-emerging infectious diseases (Rojas et al., 1992). Therefore, researchers are increasingly turning their attention tolocal herbs, looking for new leads todevelop better drugs against microbial infections (Benkeblia, 2004).

The increasing failure of chemo therapeutics and antibiotic resistance exhibited by pathogenic microbial infectious agents has led to the screening of several medicinal plants for their potential antimicrobial activity (Kapila, 2005 ;Runyoro et al.,2006). The rising prevalence of antibiotics resistant pathogenic microorganisms raises the demand for finding new alternative antimicrobial agents. The drugs already in use to treat infectious disease are of concern because drug safety remains an enormous global issue.

Most of the synthetic drugs cause side effects and also most of the microbes developed resistant against the synthetic drugs (Chanda and Rakholiya 2011). To alleviate this problem, antimicrobial compounds from potential plants should be explored. These drugs from plants are less toxic; side effects are scanty and also cost effective. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with synthetic antimicrobials (Harishchandraet al., 2012).

Published studies in medical journals show that coconut in one form or another may provide a wide range of health benefits. The coconut plant Cocos nucifera (family Arecaceae) is considered as an important fruit crop in tropical countries. It is commonly available plant with wide variety of applications in food, drinks, fibers, building materials and various chemicals finding their way into a huge range of modern day products. Being highly nutritious coconuts have also been studied for medicinal qualities.

Modern medical science is now confirming the medicinal qualities of Cocos nucifera which are used for the treatment wide range of infections. Based on the knowledge of the traditional herbs used for the treatment for local application, coconut husk can be use as a topical antimicrobial. As preliminary investigation of the use of coconut husk, the antimicrobial activity can be evaluated.

1.2 Aim and Objectives

The specific objectives are to:

  1. Evaluate the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Methalonic extract of young Cocos nucifera husk on selected pathogenic microorganisms.
  2. Evaluate the antimicrobial activities and young Cocos nucifera water on selected pathogenic microorganisms

1.3 Justification of the Research

Cocos nucifera husk and Cocos nucifera water are traditionally used in the treatment of wide variety of diseases, it has been used from time immemorial for the treatment of carcinogenic infections. This study scientifically justifies the use of young Coconut husk and young Coconut water in traditional folk medicine and to compare their antimicrobial potency with the commercial antibiotics.

Chapter Four

Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

4.1 Discussion

In this study, the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of the methanolic extract of Young Cocos nucifera husk and Young Cocos nucifera water revealed the potential of the plant to be active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including fungal isolates, thus exhibiting a broad spectrum activity.

The antimicrobial activity of Young Cocos nucifera water exhibited a higher inhibitory effect against the tested microorganisms used in this study than the methanolic extract of Young Cocos nucifera husk.

In the case of the methanolic extract of Young Cocos nucifera husk, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus (NCIB 950), Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger were inhibited by the husk extract while Cocos nucifera water inhibited all the tested microorganisms except Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218).

The low Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) (3.125-12.5 mg/ml) and (10-30 μL) for the husk extract and water, respectively, observed during the study indicate that the methanolic husk extract and Cocos nucifera water are efficacious at different concentrations and can be used for the management of diseases caused by the susceptible microorganisms.

The results of the antibiotic sensitivity test reveal that some of the test organisms were resistant to commercial antibiotics while most were inhibited to various degrees. This resistance of human pathogens may be due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics by patients, using fake antibiotics in non-recommended patient stores, and improper use of antibiotics as prescribed (Martno et al., 2002).

The commercial antibiotics were found to exert a higher inhibitory effect on the pathogenic microorganisms compared to the husk extract and water. This may be as a result of the high level of purification of the antibiotics as reported by Doughari et al. (2007) that the state of administration of an antimicrobial agent affects the effectiveness of such agent, and that antibiotics in a refined state may record higher antimicrobial activity than plants in a crude state. Moreover, antibiotics in their small particle size can easily penetrate through the cell wall into the cytoplasm of the microorganisms as reported by Mailard (2002).

The phytochemical screening result revealed the presence of tannin and cardiac glycoside. These phytochemical compounds are known to play important roles in the bioactivity of medicinal plants and elicit an inhibitory effect on microorganisms (Oseni et al., 2012). It has been indicated that antimicrobial activities shown by the crude extracts of many natural resources including plants have been attributed to the secondary metabolites present in them (Alqasoumi et al., 2008; Joseph and Raj, 2011). The presence of tannins confirms their use in folkloric medicine as antibacterial agents which inhibit some redox pathways and other biochemical processes in the bacterial cell. In plant tissue, tannins have been synthesized and accumulated after microbial attack. Their mode of antimicrobial action may be related to their ability to inactivate microbial adhesins, enzymes, cell envelope transport proteins because of a property known as astringency (Cowan, 1999).

4.2 Conclusion

Cocos nucifera husk and Cocos nucifera water have broad-spectrum activities which have great potential as antimicrobial compounds against microorganisms. Thus, they can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by these selected organisms, including typed microorganisms. The demonstration of their antimicrobial activity against the test isolates is an indication that there is a possibility of sourcing alternative antibiotic substances in these plants for the development of newer antibacterial agents.

4.3 Recommendation

More research work should be carried out on medicinal plants in order to improve the healthcare of people, thus leading to a reduction in dependence on synthetic drugs. Moreover, the society should be educated on the value of medicinal plants in order to accept the use of herbs in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases.

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