Antimicrobial Activity And Phytochemical Analysis Of Aqueous And Methanoic Extract Of Celosia Argentea

Project and Seminar Material for Pharmaceutical Science

Project and Seminar Material for Pharmaceutical Science


Abstract


Celosia argentea is used traditionally for the treatment of wounds, dysentary, fatique, menstral bleeding, osteoporosis, Atheros-clerosis etc. This investigation was aimed to analyze the phytochemical (phyto constituents) that is present in the aqueous and methanoic extracts of celosia argentea leaf and also the antimicrobial activity of celosia argentea leaf extracts. It was done to extract the bioactive compounds from this medicinal plant which permits the demonstration of their physiological activity.

The powdered leaf was subjected to extractions using a polar solvent which was distilled water (100ml) and 100ml of methanol using soxhlet extractor. The anti-microbial activity was also carried out by inoculating different micro-organisms like staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia Coli, Streptococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, candida albicans and Aspergillusniger into different nutrient agar dish by streaking method.

The extracts were then introduced into the bored well in the solidified agar dish and were incubated at 1210C for 24hrs. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed that the leaf extract of celosia argentea contain phenols ,saponins, anthranoids, anthraquinone, alkaloids, tannins and phylobatannins.

The microbial activity revealed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) as well as the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125mg/ml to 250mg/ml.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Aims/objectives of the study
  • 1.3 Statement of the problem
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Scope of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Classification of celosia argentea
  • 2.2 Cultivation of celosia argentea
  • 2.3 Environmental requirement for cultivation
  • 2.4 Uses of celosia argentea
  • 2.4.1 Culinary uses
  • 2.4.2 Plant uses:
  • 2.4.3 Medicinal uses:
  • 2.4.4 Nutritional uses:
  • 2.4.5 Horticultural uses:
  • 2.4.6 Traditional uses
  • 2.5 Methods of extraction of natural products
  • 2.5.1 Maceration
  • 2.5.2 Percolation
  • 2.5.3 Soxhlet extraction
  • 2.5.4 Pressurized solvent extraction

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Materials used
  • 3.2 Methods:-
  • 3.2.1 Collection of plant material
  • 3.2.2 Preparation of plant materials
  • 3.3.0 Phytochemical analysis
  • 3.3.1 Test for saponins
  • 3.3.2 Test for anthranoids
  • 3.3.3. Test for anthroquine
  • 3.3.4 Test for phenols
  • 3.3.5 Test for alkaloids
  • 3.3.6 Test for tannins
  • 3.3.7 Test for phylobatannins
  • 3.3.8 Test for cardiac glycoside
  • 3.4 Antimicrobial activity
  • 3.4.1 Preparation of nutrient agar
  • 3.4.2 Inoculation of the micro-organism

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

In recent days, substantial number of drugs are developed or obtained from plant as plant is the major sources of medicine. Great attention has been given to medicinal plants because they are very important in the safety of the communities. The use of herbal medicinefor the treatment of diseases and infections is as old as mankind. (Patel et al, 1993). It began from the first appearance of man on earth. A large proportion of the drugs emanated from ethnobotanical knowledge of the traditional use of plant.

The World health organization (WHO) estimates that 80% of the world population presently uses herbal medicine for primary health care. The traditional use of plant in native cultures are manifold and divers as many people still depend on plant for their medicine, food, economy, dyes etc. In traditional societies, nutrition and health care are strongly interconnected and many plants have been consumed as both food and for medicinal purposes.

(karthiyayini and Nithiya, 2015). The curative agents or properties of these medicinal plants are as a result of the presence of various complex chemical substances of different compositions which are referred to as secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites are grouped into flavonoids, tannins, phenols, terpenoids, carotenoids, atropine, anthraquinine, saponins, phylobatannins, anthranoids etc.

Some of these plants have been analyzed scientifically for the antimicrobial activity while many of the plant products are seen to inhibit the growth of pathogenic micro-organisms. With the increasing frequency in side effects and the resistance of pathogenic micro-organisms built up against antibiotics, alternative antimicrobial strategies are persistently required, which may be to seek structurally novel antibiotics that have entirely different mechanisms of actions from the currently used agents or to employ plants in crude form which show potent effect due to their complex chemical composition and synergistic action. This has led to a re-evaluation of therapeutic use of ancient remedies, such as plants and plant based products. (Mandal and Mandal, 2011). Therefore, there is need to study the plant and plant products for the activities of resistant bacteria. Recently, the interest to investigate the phytochemical composition of medicinal plant and its pharmacological activity is growing gradually in the minds of researchers and research concerning it, is going on.

Antimicrobial activity so far considered empirical, have been analyzed scientifically and confirmed in celosia argentea leaf extract. The whole plant of celosia argentea is traditionally used for the treatment of skin diseases, diarrhea, wounds, ulcers, bleeding nose, piles. Also, disinfectant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulanting, anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and anti-bacterial activities have been reported in the extracts and its constituents. (Nidavani et al, 2013).


1.2 Aims / Objectives Of The Study

The aim is to ascertain the phytochemical compounds and the antimicrobial activity of celosia argentea leaf extracts.


1.3 Statement Of The Problem

The high cost of orthodox medicines, the increasing problem of drug resistant and the treatment problems, has led to the frequent use of herbal medicine by people to cure diseases. Celosia has been used in treating mouth sores, wounds, ulcers, blood diseases, eye problems, chest problems, intestinal worms, lack of vitamins such as vitamin A and C etc.

Exploitation of local sources like celosia argentea leaf can be of benefit to the sufferers of the above mentioned diseases and other deficiencies. Again, the quest for balanced diet with the six classes of food is of great concerns to Nigerians and the exploitation of celosia argentea which is believed to contain considerable amount of proteins, carbohydrates, water, vitamins, minerals, fats and oils will bring a definite end to the malnutrition in the country.


1.4 Significance Of The Study

At the end of this study, people will be enlightened and educated on the usefulness and antimicrobial effects of celosia argentea from the information that will be generated at the course of studying this particular plant.


1.5 Scope Of The Study

This work will cover areas such as:

  1. Antimicrobial effects of celosia argentea, aqueous and methanoic extracts.
  2. Benefits of celosia argentea as regards to its nutritional values.
  3. Medicinal uses of celosia argentea leaves and flowers.
  4. Culinary uses and plant uses of celosia argentea.
  5. The phytochemical constituents of celosia agentea leaf extract.

Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presesnce of saponins, alkaloids anthranoid, anthraquinone, tannins, and phenols. These components are bioactive compounds provided by plants to cure human diseases, including microbial diseases. (Orhue et al, 2014). The relatively antimicrobial activity recorded with the plant extracts against the test organisms used in this study is in line with the study of Fiori et al, 2013, who reported that tannins elicit antimicrobial activity in the following ways:-

  1. By inhibiting the enzymes activity by complexation with substrate of bacteria and fungi.
  2. Direct action of tannins in the micro-organism metabolism through the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and a mechanism involving the complexation of tannins with metabolic ions, decreasing the availability of essential ions to the metabolism of the micro-organism.

Therefore, the outcome of this study have revealed that the plant extracts could be used to treat diseases caused by the test organisms used in this study, since it was able to inhibit their growth.


5.2 Conclusion

The outcome of this study justified the use of celosia argentea in traditional medicine as an antimicrobial agent to treat diseases caused by these organism used in this study.


5.3 Recommendation

Further purification of the leaf extract could give a lead for isolation and discovery of new compounds which may be more potent than the already existing antimicrobial agents in use.

The use of this plant in treating disease caused by the test bacteria should be encouraged.


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