Antilipidemic Effect Of Water (H20) Extract Of Desmodium Velutinum Leaves On Albino Wistar Rats

Project and Seminar Material for Biochemistry

Antilipidemic Effect Of Water (H20) Extract Of Desmodium Velutinum Leaves On Albino Wistar Rats


Abstract


This study evaluated the antilipidemic activity of water extracts from leaves of Desmodium velutinum on albino wistar rats. The phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, soluble carbohydrates, flavonoids, reducing sugar, steroids, cyanide and terpenoids. The animals were treated with known drugs (atorvastatin 2ml).

There were significantly reductions in HDL 13.00

  • 1.41 mg/dl LDL 1.20
  • 0.14 mg/dl and triglyceride 39.00
  • 0.14 mg/dl, compared with water extract of Desmodium velutinum (0.5ml). when administered was found to significantly reduce lipid plasma which was LDL 1.90
  • 0.00mg/dl, triglyceride 50.00
  • 0.00mg/dl and increase HDL 25.00
  • 0.00 mg/dl which is the good cholesterol.

The water extract of Desmodium velutinum leaf can possibly normalize the plasma lipid when compared with the group given atorvastatin. The phytochemicals analysis showed that the association between these complexes and compounds and other constituent play an important role in the biological activity of the leaf. This study suggested that the water extract of D.velutinum leaf posses hypolipidemic as well as antilipidemic effect.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities play a major role in the development and progression of coronary artery diseases. Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterols have been identified as independent coronary risk factors (Rodrigue et al., 2010). High level of blood cholesterol is responsible for circulatory system disorder. Increase level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is alarming for cardiovascular diseases and their risk is increased many times (Harman et al., 2011).

In developing countries, the occurrence of heart diseases increases rapidly (Nordestgard et al., 2010). Medical studies show that about 70% of adults over 50 years old suffer atherosclerosis. (Sherien and Azza, 2009). A large number of synthetic hypolipidemic drugs are available in market. Long term use of these drugs cause serious side effects, and are costly.

A medicinal plant is any plant which in one or more of its organ, contains substance that can be used for therapeutic purpose or which is a precursor for synthesis of useful drugs (Sivakumar et al., 2007). Plant contains a large number of bioactive phytochemicals that are responsible for pharmacological action of plants and used for development of drugs. Many medicinal plants have shown their antilipidemic effect and proved their efficacy in cardiovascular diseases (Nordestgard et al., 2010; Wang, 1999).

One of such plants used very often in the management of the disease by the traditional medicine practitioners of Eastern Nigeria is Desmodium velutium, a perennial plant erect or semi-erect shrub or sub-shrub up to 3m light. It is widely distributed in subtropical Asia and tropical Africa. (Amowi and Azode, 2012).

Extracts of Desmodium velutium are used traditionally in some disease conditions particularly aphrodisiac and headache. Hence, Desomdium velutium may be a source of a pharmacological active agent useful in the treatment of aches, pains and diarrhoea. In Ghana, native doctors mix the root of Desmodium lasincarpum with some hot peppers and use it as enema to cure blood in urine. In Eastern States of Nigeria, the plant locally known as “Ikeagwuani”. (Onyegbule et al., 2012). In these present studies, I investigated the antilipidemic activity of the water (H2O) extract of Desmodium velutinum Leaves on albino wistar rats.

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Chapter Five


Discussion and Conclusion:

This study evaluated the antilipidamic activity of the water extract of Desmodium velutinumin albino wistar rat. Hyperlipidemia comprises a state of increased concentrations of TG, TC and LDL-C and is an important risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases (Viran etal., 2012).

In table 1, the data shows that, there is a significantly high content of alkaloid, reducing sugar, soluble carbohydrate, flavonoid, and tannin in water extract of D.V. leaf. These alkaloids often have pharmacological effect and are used as medication, as recreational drug, exert anti-asthma, anti-cancer, anti-arlythmia (Manske, 2006) and reduce unwanted side effects. Tannin compounds are biomolecule, as in an astringent, bitter plant polyhenolic compounds that binds to and precipitates proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids (Kadam et al., 2005). Tannins and alkaloid may also be effective in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. The content of cyanide present in water extract of D.V leaf is very small. Even though cyanide is said to be toxic to the body, its content in the extract is minimal (0.63 0.003) thus opposes no threat to the body.

In table II shows the presence of flavonoids, saponin, soluble carbohydrate, cyanide, terpenoid, steroid, reducing sugar, alkaloid and tannin, in extract of D.V. leaf .But tannin and alkaloid showed fully present, flavonoid and reducing sugar showed strongly present significantly. Flavonoids are most commonly known for their antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-allergic, anti-cancer and anti-diarrheal activities. (Cushine and Lamb, 2005). Flavonoids have medicinal properties especially their putative role in inhibiting cancer and cardiovascular disease (Frei, 2006).

Saponin involves the complexation with cholesterol to form pores in cell membrane bilayer, e.g., in red cell (erythrocyte) membranes, where complication leads to red cell lysis on intravenous injection (Yah et al., 2010) and also show antioxidant, anticancer activity. Saponin have shown to reduce cardiovascular and atherosclerosis. Polysaccharide and protein (e.g., glycoprotein complexes present in plant extracts (Oh etal., 2006) could also be involved in the hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of D.velutinum. Therefore, the association between these complexes and compounds and other constituents may play an important role in the biological activity of the leaf. Soluble carbohydrate is said to help control body weight lower blood glucose and cholesterol (mayor, 2011) by
inhibiting the absorption of fats and cholesterol in intestine.

In table II, the group 1 fed normal feed the LDL.C is 3.60 0.14 and

HDL.C. is 30.00 V 1.41. In group II fed with cow‟s brain effectively increase plasma lipid significantly to LDL-C 3.90

 0.14 and HDL-C 40.00  1.41, thereby causing an increase in the activity of HMG-CoA reductase and acting on cholesterol synthesis.

In group II treated with atorvastatin reduces the plasma lipid significantly to LDL-C 1.20  0.14 and HDL-C 13.00 1.41 which can possibly leads to hypocholesterolemia compared to group IV treated with water extract of D.V. leaf reduce plasma lipid to LDL-C 1.90 0.00 and an increase in HDL-C 25.00 0.00 which is the good cholesterol. The data demonstrate that water extract of D.V. leaf can possibly normalize the plasma lipid. The study suggests that the water extract of the leaf is effective in reducing lipid plasma, thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular and atherosclerosis disease. The findings lend support to the folkloric use of D.velutinum in the Eastern Nigeria as an antilipidemic agent.


5.2 Conclusion:

The water extract of Desmodium velutinum leaves showed significant antilipidemic effect in experimental rats.

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