Antibiotics Resistance Profile Of Escherichia Coli Isolated From Apparently Healthy Domestic Livestock In South-West Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology

Antibiotics Resistance Profile Of Escherichia Coli Isolated From Apparently Healthy Domestic Livestock In South-West Nigeria


Abstract


This study was conducted to determine the antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichial Coli isolate from apparently healthy domestic livestock viz: cow, goats and chicken from Osun State Nigeria. E. Coli was isolated using Eosin methylene Blue Agar (EMB) and identified by conventional microbiological technique. The isolate were tested against 14 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. A total of 42 different antibiotics resistance profile were observed with each isolate showing resistance to at least four or more drugs tested.

Generally, the E. coli isolates showed resistance rates of 93.8% to Ampicilin; 15.3% to Chloramphenicol, 52.7% to cloxacillin, 74.3% Erythromycin, 20.9% to Gentamicin, 53.8% to Penicillin, 17.7% to Streptomycin, 67.3% to Tetracyclin, 21.1% to Ceftazidine 70.7% to Cefuroxine, 20.5% to Cefixine, 28.8% to Ofloxacine, 58.6% to Augmentin, 27.2% to Nitorfurantion 27.3% to Ciprofloxacin. Statistical analysis showed that average number of resistance phenotypes per isolate was significantly higher for cow compared with poultry. A significant public health concern observed in this study is that multi drug resistant: commensal E. Coli strains may constitute a potential reservoir of resistance genes that could be transferred to pathogenic bacteria.


Chapter Four


Discussion

The E. coli strains isolated exhibited high rates of resistance against the following antibiotics: Ampicillin Cloxacillin, Erythmycin Penicillin, Tetracyclin, Cefuroxime and Augmentin. This high resistance level in spite of the fact that the farms under study do not have histories of supplementing animal feed with antibiotics as growth promoters nor are antibiotics used prophylactically, extensively. It is therefore probable that other factors and pressure of resistance in the absence of antibiotics exposure..

Specifically, E. coli isolates from animals that rarely receive antibiotics recorded very high resistance against Ampicillin (93.8%), Cloxacillin (57.5%), Erythromycin (75.5%), Penicillin (60.5%), Tetracyclin (70.3%), Cefuoxime (45.8%), Augmentin (65.9%) and moderate rates to Chloramhpenicol (16.6%), Gentamicine (20%), Streptomycine (19.5%) Ceftazidine (25.8%) Cetixine (22.2%), Ofloxacin (30.6%), Nitrofurantion (26%) and Cprofloxacin (29.3%). The high figures presented here may not be out of place but a reflection of resistance events in other hosts (human) sharing the same environment with these animals which was also observed in this study.

Although, the domestic live – stocks sampled in this study do not receive any modern veterinary attention, they may maintain close contact through a myriad of routes (such as water) with humans in their environment that had been previously exposed to various antibiotics.

In many communities an Nigeria, it is common for people to defecate in and around surrounding compounds, bushes or to urinate just at the corner of the house. Such poor and unhygienic disposal methods of human excrements definitely expose these animals to normal human resistance organisms by animals hosts, because of selective use of antibiotics in human hosts in the same environment has been described by Lipstich and Samore (2002).

Taking resistance according to sources of samples there strong evidence that the use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production can lead to the emergence and dissemination of resistant E. coli (Linton et al, 1977, levy et al, 1976, Bogard et al, 2001) which can then be passed unto people via food or through direct contact with the poultry.

However, there are increasing numbers of reports detailing circulation and amplification of antimicrobial resistance amplification of antimicrobial resistance genes in the environment (Sayal et al., 2005) which could facilitate the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The findings (in our study) of multiple drug resistance facilities that rarely use antibiotics concurs with these previous reports Rysz and Alvarez (2004) demonstrate that bacteria in the soil could acquire resistance to naturally occurring antibiotics resistance from environment exposure, possibly creating a reservoir exposure, possibly creating a reservoir of resistance factors generated outside host, humans and animals. However, Sayah et al (.2005) reported that farm environmental isolates showed reduced susceptibility (as measured by disc diffusion zone diameter) compared to facial sample isolates to most agents studied. They suggested that non sampled sources for example, farm workers and wildlife with access to the farm environment could be sources of resistance factors.


Conclusion

Vividly highlighted by the resistance results against the Chloramphenicol in the present study, Chloramphenicol although old .cut because of the reduction in the usage of the drug therapy in Nigeria. It is possible that the very low usage of these drug by human in the poultry environment is reflected by the equally low levels of resistance against these group of antibiotics as recorded in this study. These data are alarming because indiscriminate use of antibiotics along with poor hygiene and disease control that are part that constitute a potential reservoir of resistance genes that could be transferred to pathogenic bacteria.

The high prevalence of multi drug resistance E. coli observed in this study suggests there is a need for improved education and communication on the issue of antibiotic use in human and veterinary medicine.


Recommendation

Through this study, E. coli shows resistance to almost all the antibiotics used therefore it is recommended that human beings should cook their meat gotten from these animal properly before taking them in order to avoid ingestion of the microorganism since it can be transferred to human being through eating uncooked meat, human being should also perfect themselves from having close contact with the animals to avoid transmission of the E. coli


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