Antibacterial Effect Of Neem Tree (Azadirachtaindica) Leaf Exract On Staphylococcus Aureus
The main focus of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of Neem tree (Azadirachtaindica) leaf extract on Staphylococcus aureus. The Neem tree leaf extract was tested in terms of the different levels of concentration with (a) 25% concentration, (b) 50% concentration, (c) 75% concentration, (d) 100% concentration on Staphylococcus aureus. It specifically compared the significant differences of the different levels of concentration ofNeem tree leaf extract, and also compared to the positive control. The plant materials were collected and brought to the West Visayas State University Biological Science Laboratory where the experimentation was conducted.
Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was the research design used in the study. The interpretation of the results was based on the Claustro et.al zone of inhibition scale. The statistical analysis (One- way ANOVA) was not employed due to the reason that the zone of inhibition is zero.
Results of the study revealed that there was no significant differences on the effect of the different levels of Neem tree (Azadirachtaindica) leaf extract on Staphylococcus aureus.
Introduction of the Study
1.1 Background of the Study
Philippines is a country that has plenty of resources and biodiversity. Plants in different species just sprout and grow anywhere.Vegetations remain to be the most important part of human existence.
Medicinal substances derived from different plants around us have become the most sought sources of medicines. However, a considerable number of people in our generation still do not recognize the value and significance of medicinal plants. Many people continue to rely on synthetic drugs for treatment of common illnesses despite their being expensive.
Basically, the researchers had initiated a study that may provide appropriate answers to some common health problems experienced by human beings.
Nowadays, skin problems also proliferate fast and are equally disturbing just like any other diseasesaffecting our communities. This is the primary reason why researchers conceptualized this study to determine the anti-bacterial components of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) leaves extract and its possible effects against Staphylococcus aureus, the bacteria that concerns most of the common skin problems.
Neem is a tropical tree that has been declared non-toxic to humans. Previous studies revealed that it contains anti-bacterial properties and high-content of anti-oxidant called polyphenols. Neem tree extracts has an endodontic anti-microbial agent, an alternative to frequently employed Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexide; both to inhibit the growth of endodontic pathogens.
Sodium Hypochlorite is now used in endodontic during root canal treatments. It is the medicament of choice due to its efficacy against pathogenic organisms and pulp digestion. Chlorexide is a chemical antiseptic. It is effective on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Staphylococcus aureus is facultative anaerobic Gram-positve coccus, and is the common cause of staph infections. It is frequently part of skin flora found in the nose and the skin. About 20% of human population are long –term carriers of Staphylococcus aureus can cause a range of illness from skin infection, such as pimples, impetigo, cellulitis follicutis, to life threatening diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, bacteremia and sepsis. It is still one of the five most common causes of nosocomial infections, often causing post-surgical wounds infection.
This study mainly aimed at finding out the antibacterial effect of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) tree leaf- extract on Staphylococcus aureus. Further, it also aimed to find out whether Neem tree leaf extract has significant effect in terms of different levels of concentrations, namely: (a)25% concentration (b)50% concentration (c)75% concentration (d)100% concentration on inhibition Staphylococcus aureus.
Due to the high cost of medicines, unpredictable weather conditions that brought certain diseases specifically skin diseases, the continuous uplifting of herbal medicines and abundance supply of neem tree were the reason why the researcher conducted this study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) leaves extract against Staphylococcus aureus.
Determine the significant difference among the different levels of concentration; (a) 25%, (2) 50%, (3) 75%, (d) 100% of Neem tree leaves extract on Staphylococcus aureus as indicated by its zone of inhibition.
Determine what sample treatment showed the widest zone of inhibition and the smallest zone of inhibition.
Compared the effect of different levels of concentration of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) leaves extract on the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus to the control set-up.
It was therefore hypothesized that:
There is no significant difference between the levels of concentration: (a) 25%, (b) 50%, (c) 75%, (d) 100% of Neem leaves extract on Staphylococcus aureus as indicated by its zone of inhibition.
1.3 Significance of the Study
The anti-bacterial effect of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) leaves extract against Staphylococcus aureus, will be a great help in discovering a herbal medicine.
More specifically, it is beneficial on the following context:
They can obtain a cheaper medicine using a herbal plant within their place and they can resort to the Neem Tree.
Herbal medicine can be afford by almost all of us due to its abundance in the community.
Department of Agriculture
They will benefit on the ideas and knowledge that Neem tree can be used as an anti-bacterial medicine.
Department of Health
Ideas and facts can be presented about the Neem tree that can be used as a medicine.
A cheaper medicine will be sold and they would gain on it and they would take the idea for herbal medicine.
They could gain ideas about plants and can be used as a medicine and they can conduct further studies and researchers in relation to this study.
Fellow researchers can get ideas and information about the uses of Neem tree especially in inhabiting bacterial growth. They can also study on the plants that is abundant in their place.
1.4 Scope and Limitations
This study was conducted to determine the anti-bacterial capacity of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) leaf extract on staphylococcus aureus in different concentrations: 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% as indicated by its zone of inhibition. It also aimed to determine which concentrations has a significant effect.
Experimental method was used in this study. The independent variables were the different levels of concentration of Neem tree leaf extract and dependent variable was the zone of inhibition exhibited on the culturedStaphylococcus aureus. This study is limited on the bacterial samples of Staphylococcus aureus.
Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used.The preparation of the extract, culture of bacteria and experimentation was conducted at West Visayas State University Biological Science Laboratory, July 2011.
1.5 Definition of Terms
A remedy that was used in the study namely the Cloxacillin.
It is a process that the researchers did in culturing the bacterial sample
An antibiotic intended to treat bacterial infections was used as the positive control set-up.
The process by which the juice is separated from other residue of the leaves. The tea extract was used to treat the Staphylococcus aureus.
The part of the neem tree that was extracted and was used in the study in different levels of concertration.
The neem (Azadirachtaindica) tree leaf extract was used in treating Staphylococcus aureus.
Was used as bacterial medium for bacterial culture.
A container where the nutrient agar was placed and cultured.
A data in which we obtained the information about the content of the variables used such as Thylanoids, Enzymes, Alkaloids, Tannins and Saponins.
The bacteria that was treated in the study.
Zone of inhibition
Used term for the region inhibited by our antibacterial agent (Neem).
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
Chapter five presents the summary and findings of the study. the conclusions arrived at and recommendations.
This study was conducted to determine the antibacterial effect of Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract on Staphylococcus aureus.
There were four treatments and one control set-up (positive set-up) with three replications each, one plate for every concentration (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%) and three for the positive control set-up. Each plate contained nutrient agar with the cultured Staphylococcus aureus. The plates were treated with the several levels of Neem tree extract.
The results of the study revealed that the different levels of concentration of Neem tree extract has no significant effect on Staphylococcus aureus.
This study was conducted at West Visayas State University Biological Science Laboratory, July 2011.
- Determine the significant difference among the different levels of concentration; (a) 25%, (2) 50%, (3) 75%, (d) 100% of Neem tree leaves extract on Staphylococcus aureus as indicated by its zone of inhibition.
- Determine what sample treatment showed the widest zone of inhibition and the smallest zone of inhibition.
- Compared the effect of different levels of concentration of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves extract on the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus to the control set-up.
The results showed the following:
- There was no significant difference on the effect of the different levels of
concentration of the Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) leaves extract on Staphylococcus aureus.
- As the results of the study showed the entire sample treatment has no zone of inhibition. Neither of the sample treatments has the widest zone of inhibition nor the smallest zone of inhibition.
- There was no significant difference of the different levels of concentration of Neem tree leaves extract compared to the positive control set-up.
Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn:
Since the varying levels of Neem tree leaf extract did not show any difference on their effects on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and did not show significance over the results of the positive control, we concluded that the four different concentrations of Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) has no significant effect on Staphylococcus aureus.
In review of the results and findings of the study, the following recommendations are hereby advance:
- Extracts from other parts of the Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) leaves should be evaluated for antibacterial activities particularly seeds and bark.
- Repeat this process with improvement in terms of the materials used and length of time the bacterial culture was subjected to a specific treatment.
- Conduct extensive clinical studies to confirm further the effectiveness of other plant part extracts in treating various diseases.
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