Antibacterial Activity Of Honey On Staphylococcus Aureus Escherichia Coli And Streptococcus Pyogen Isolated From Wound

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology


Abstract


Antibacterial activity of honey obtained from two different locations in Enugu State (Nsukka & Ugwuaji) Nigeria on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogens isolated from wound was studied. Agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the honey on the test microorganisms. The result revealed that the two honey samples have heavy antibacterial activities against the test organisms and zones of inhibition were obtained showing high antibacterial activity.

The antibacterial activity increased with increase in the concentrations and honey from Nsukka produced a high antibacterial activity (clearer zone) on staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli at all concentration and moderately for streptococcus pyogens. The use of honey as a therapeutic substance has been rediscovered by the medical profession on more recent times, and it is gaining acceptance as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of ulcers and bed sores, and other infections resulting from burns and wounds.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Aims and objectives

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review
  • 2.1 Wound infection
  • 2.2 Definition of honey
  • 2.3 Local test for honey
  • 2.4 Classification of honey
  • 2.5 Preservation of honey
  • 2.6 Properties and active ingredient of honey
  • 2.7 Mode of action of some antibacterial substance present in honey
  • 2.8 Clinical conditions for treatment with honey
  • 2.9 Honey as an antimicrobial agent
  • 2.10 Practical consideration for the clinical use of honey
  • 2.11 Adverse reaction of honey
  • 2.12 Research on honey

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Source of Sample
  • 3.2 Sources of honey
  • 3.3 Identification of organisms
  • 3.4 Gram Staining
  • 3.5 Indole test
  • 3.6 Catalase test
  • 3.7 Coagulase test
  • 3.8 Antibacterial sensitivity test

Chapter Four

  • 4.1 Result

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Discussion
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • Reference
  • Appendix 1
  • Appendix 2

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Infections and other health related problems have been of great concern to human beings and chemotherapy is the main approach in the treatment of such conditions. Investigation into the microbial flora of wound began in the late 19th century and since then; improvements in techniques have facilitated the recovery, identification and enumeration of a wide variety of microbial species. Most wounds support relatively stable polymicrobial communities (Bowkler, et.al; 2001) often without signs of clinical infection (Hansson,et al; 1993).

However, potential pathogens may be present and the delicate balance between colonized wound and an infected wound depends on the interplay of complex host and microbial influences (Emmerson, 1998). The development of wound infection has deleterious effect on patients by causing increased pain, discomfort, inconveniences and can lead to life threatening conditions or even death.

Major challenges encountered with antibiotics in clinical use are resistance to antibiotics which leads eventually to failure of the treatment (Blair 2004). Infectious diseases are known to be treated with herbal remedies throughout the history of mankind; even today, natural substances continue to play a major role in primary health care as therapeutic remedies in many developing countries (Jonathan, et.al; 2007). Over the years, there have been reports of the production of more potent antibiotics e.g. third and fourth generation of cephalosporin by pharmaceutical companies which are not readily available and expensive. Problems of various antibiotics include low efficacy, side effect which has lead investigations into natural and potent antibacterial seeming to be the right step to take. The invasion of pathogenic organism is on the rise as a result, effects are been made to develop antibacterial agent from natural sources for better therapeutic effect (Gills, 1992). The therapies have drawn the interest of both public and medicinal communities. Current research has been focused on herbal and aromatherapy product. However, a number of their product such as honey has shown therapeutic promise.

The presence in honey of various inhibins as described by (Doid and Dzaio, 1937) has been reported by several investigators. Honey was used to treat infected wound as long as 2000 years ago before bacterial were discovered to be the cause of infection in c.50 AD, Dioscorides described honey as been “good for all rotten and hollow ulcers” (Gunther, 1959). More recently, honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect to around 60 species of bacterial including aerobes and anaerobes, Gram positive and Gram negative (Molan, 1992). The current prevalence of the therapeutic use of ancient remedies, include honey committee on science and technology.


1.1 Aims and Objectives

  1. To determine antibacterial potential of honey.
  2. To investigate the mechanism of antibacterial action of honey.
  3. To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of honey on bacterial isolates from wounds of human beings.
  4. To yield additional knowledge such as the possible dilution of honey sample and activity of the honey sample in bacterial infection.

Chapter Five


5.1 Discussion

The study which was carried out to investigate the possible antibacterial activity of honey from different locations (Nsukka and Ugwuaji) in Enugu state on some pathogenic microorganism (staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, & streptococcus pyogen) isolated from wound demonstrated antibacterial spectrum and efficiency against the test bacterials.Comparing the antibacterial activity of the two honey sample, it was observed that honey from Nsukka produced the highest zone of inhibition (effect) at the net (100%) concentration and their zone of inhibition was 20, 15 and 10 mm respectively for staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and streptococcus pyogen (Table 3).
A distinct observation was made with the Ugwuaji honey which showed no antibacterial activity (No zone of inhibition) at the

concentration (dilution) of 20% on streptococcus pyogen, hence no result was recorded compared to the other honey sample. From the result represented on table 3 and 4, it was observed that the zone of inhibition was increased with the concentration of the honey i.e. an increase in the honey concentration increases the zone of inhibition. This observation agrees with Wilix et al; (2009)
The antibacterial activity of honey was recently investigated Wilix et al; (2009) by microbiologist looking at the effect of two honey on their collection of MRSA – strains of Staphylococcus aureus that cause ward closures in hospitals because they are resistant to most or all of the commonly used antibiotics. All the strains they studied were found to have their growth halted completely by the honeys at 5 – 10%. Also it has been demonstrated (Efem; 1993) that honey can accelerate wound healing and also possess bacterial properties


5.2 Conclusion

It has been shown that the potency of the antibacterial activity can vary very markedly. The number of variable factors involved makes it impossible to predict with any certainly that a particular honey will have a high antibacterial activity assurance.

Though both honey was from the same state, honey from Nsukka demonstrated more effective antibacterial activity than that of Ugwuaji. Based on the findings of this research honey possess antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Only Streptococcus pyogen was found to be moderately susceptible in the diluted honey at different concentration. The honey used for this reach showed antibacterial effect against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial. Both topical antimicrobial agent (O’meare et al; 2001) and appropriately selected antibiotics (Bowler et al; 2001) are

valuable in the treatment of infected wounds but the routine use of systemic antibiotics for chronic wounds without signs of clinical infection is not recommended (O’ meara et al; 2001)


5.3 Recommendation

It is recommended that honey should be used as substitute for antibiotic because of its effect on bacterial. Precaution against loss of antibacterial activity should be taken and honey with high activity should not be blended with honey of low activity because a honey with low activity could well have components present that destroy antibacterial activity. The intake of honey frequently is recommended because it will go a long way to reduce the incidence of common bacterial infections. Topical use of honey on wounds is advised to prevent bacterial infection thus accelerate wound healing. For retail sale it could well be packaged in brown glass containers like other medical products to prevent loss of antibacterial activity on exposure to light.


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