Anti-Corruption Measures As An Antidote For Accountability In Nigeria Public Service
This study was carried out to examine anti-corruption measures as an antidote for accountability in Nigeria public service using Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Lokoja as a case study. The study was carried out to find out the causes of corruption in Nigeria, find out the corrupt practices prevalence in the Nigerian public service, ascertain the anti-corruption strategies required for the management of corruption in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of staff of Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Lokoja. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the causes of corruption in Nigeria includes: Greed, excessive materialism, bureaucratic bottleneck, poor leadership. Furthermore, the study reveals that the anti-corruption strategies required for the management of corruption in Nigeria includes: periodic training of staff on the latest anti corruption policies, adequate reward system for anti-corruptions institutions, enhancing of international cooperation and partnerships, recognize reforms, and bringing corrupt actors to justice. therefore, it is recommended that the legal framework in tackling corruption must be strengthened. The current situation, where corrupt government officials exploit legal loopholes and technicalities to cover their corruption charges and thereby escape justice must be seriously redressed. The legislature should amend such legal loopholes in the constitution that corrupt officials often hide under to evade justice. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The word corruption means the destruction, running or spoiling of a society or a nation. A corrupt society stops valuing integrity and moral principles. It changes for the worse. Corruption hinders economic growth and deters investment. The impact of development assistance is reduced and natural resources are over-exploited, causing further harm to a country’s environmental assets. Resources are diverted from sectors such as education and health to less important sector or personal enrichment. The rule of law is eroded and the people no longer respect or trust the state.
A few people manage to get rich at the expense of society as a whole, while the poor suffer terrible rejection. In the long run, unchecked corruption pushes more and more people into poverty which often destabilize a society. The consequences of corruption for social and economic development are bad. People who are getting a very low wages and salaries feels they have to demand bribes in order to live decent lives. But they do not realize that corruption causes sufficiency to other. No society can endure anything neat if they allow corruption to become the full blown concern as it has become in Nigeria.
One of the greatest tragedies of military rule in recent time is that corruption was allowed to grow unchallenged and unchecked even when it was glaring for every body to see. It is also pervasive that both the public and private sector are affected, corruption now permeate every aspect of Nigeria life especially in the transaction of government at various level. It is a constant topic of conversation among all, of course, every body complains about it yet, every one appears to be involved.
Corruption manifests greatly in few people who pays and collect bribes to gain unfair advantage and of those who abuse a position not trust by taking bribes. Many people usually play bribes to gain one advantage or the other and the action is ironically considered socially acceptable in almost every facet of the society.
It is important for the researcher to trace the origin of anti-corruption measures in Nigeria. On his assumption of office on 29th May, 1999, president Olusegun Obasanjo made people to understand that his administration going to wage war against pervasive corruption in the society. He proceeded that during his campaign, he promise total war against corruption.
Corruption was identified as the number one enemy of development and progress. Combating corruption was the number one priority action of our administration, corruption is also known as a cankerworm that has eaten into the fabric of our society in every level. Corruption has been responsible for the instability of successive government since the first republic.
Looking at the failure in the application at the past, measure and policies for checking corruption by successive administration in Nigeria, President Obasanjo went ahead to send a bill to the National Assembly as it become one piece of legislation to prohibit and punish bribery and corrupt public officers and other persons in Nigeria. It was the first executive bill sent by the former administration of Olusegun Obasanjo two months after he assumed office in July, 1999, the bill was sent to the National Assembly and it generate a lot of controversies before it subsequent passage by the legislature a year after.
The anti-corruption bill was formally signed into law by the president Obasanjo in Abuja on Tuesday 13th June, 2000. The commission was inaugurated by the president on 29th September, 2008.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
What actually motivated the researcher into this very topic of study is the seeming complexity embedded in the concept of corruption.
Corruption has become a common usage of body in our society. The issue is so high that it seems there is virtually no decrease in the incidence of corruption, every body has therefore resigned to the fact that there is no solution to the problem. It has caused decay and dereliction within the infrastructure of government and the society in physical, social and human terms which have frustrated the great hope of our development.
Nigeria had hoped to attain or achieve a sustainable development since the attainment of independent to build a strong self reliant and initial nation with a just and egalitarian society that would be free from corruption and democratic in nature.
It is a pity that the inability to achieve this hope since the past (53) fifty three years of independence is due to the problems of indiscipline and corruption which have eaten deep into the social fabric of our society.
It is in the light of the above that the researcher wishes to appraise the anti-corruption as a remedy against the long time manifestation of corruption in the Nigeria public service.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The broad objective of the study is to investigate anti-corruption measures as an antidote for accountability in Nigeria public service. The specific objectives is as follows:
- Find out the causes of corruption in Nigeria.
- Find out the corrupt practices prevalence in the Nigerian public service.
- Ascertain the anti-corruption strategies required for the management of corruption in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Question
The following question are designed to guide the the study in line with the research objectives:
- What are the causes of corruption in Nigeria.?
- What are the corrupt practices prevalence in the Nigerian public service.?
- What are the anti-corruption strategies required for the management of corruption in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: There are no effective corruption measures in fighting corruption in Nigeria.
- Ha: There are effective corruption measures in fighting corruption in Nigeria
1.6 Significance of the Study
The completion of this study will be of immense importance to the students, scholars, public sector, private sector, professionals, technocrats, politicians, resource persons and administrators in the following ways:
This project is also part of the requirements for the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) certificate by the Kogi State Polytechnic. At the end, some recommendations will be made to the government on the possible way of fighting corruption in the public service and the society at large.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study borders on anti-corruption measures as an antidote for accountability in Nigeria public service. Hence the study will be delimited to Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Lokoja.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that corruption discourse is vast thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only staff of Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Lokoja. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful
1.9 Definition of Terms
Anti-corruption collective action is a form of collective action with the aim of combatting corruption and bribery risks in public procurement. It is a collaborative anti-corruption activity that brings together representatives of the private sector, public sector and civil society.
This is the use of public power for private profit or benefit of a group or class, in such a way that constitutes a breach of law or of standards of high moral conduct.
This is the payment (in money or kind) that is given or taken in a corrupt relationship to pay or receive a bribe is corruption and should be understood as the essence of corruption. A bribe is a fixed sum, a certain percentage of a contract or any other favour in money, kind usually paid to a state official who can make contracts on behalf of the state or otherwise distribute benefits to companies or individuals, businessmen and clients.
This is theft of resources by people who are put to administer it; it is when disloyal employees steal from their employers. This a serious offence when public officials are misappropriating public resources, when state officials steal from the public institutions in which he or she is employed and from resources he is supposed to administer on behalf of the public.
1.10 Organization of the Studies
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on anti-corruption measures as an antidote for accountability in Nigeria public service using Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Lokoja as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine anti-corruption measures as an antidote for accountability in Nigeria public service using Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Lokoja as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to find out the causes of corruption in Nigeria, find out the corrupt practices prevalence in the Nigerian public service, ascertain the anti-corruption strategies required for the management of corruption in Nigeria.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are staff of Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Lokoja.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- The causes of corruption in Nigeria includes: Greed, excessive materialism, bureaucratic bottleneck, poor leadership.
- The corrupt practices prevalence in the Nigerian public service includes: budgeting corruption, nepotism, procurement scam, favoritism, ghost–workers phenomenon
- The anti-corruption strategies required for the management of corruption in Nigeria includes: periodic training of staff on the latest anti corruption policies, adequate reward system for anti-corruptions institutions, enhancing of International Cooperation and Partnerships, Recognize Reforms, and Bringing Corrupt Actors to Justice
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- The legal framework in tackling corruption must be strengthened. The current situation, where corrupt government officials exploit legal loopholes and technicalities to cover their corruption charges and thereby escape justice must be seriously redressed. The legislature should amend such legal loopholes in the constitution that corrupt officials often hide under to evade justice.
- The executive should strengthen the existing agencies fighting corruption such as the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC) in order to make them more functional and effective. These agencies should be more innovative by preventing officials from stealing public funds through the use of Information Technology (IT), rather than the last minute arrest and prosecution.
- Government should have the political will to tackle corruption headlong. There should be no sacred cows, government should have the political will to prosecute any official found wanting in the discharge of his/her official duties irrespective of their status. There should be judicial reforms aimed at improving the capacity of the judiciary to speed-up the dispensation of justice as far as corruption cases are concerned. If possible, special courts can be established to try corruption cases, so as to conclude them speedily. Last but not the least, there is the need for value reorientation among Nigerians, aimed at changing the attitude and psychology of the people towards corruption as well as making the social problem an unethical practice in the minds of Nigeria.
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