An Analysis Of Students Participation Of The 18+ Warning Sign In Alcohol Advertisements In Nigeria Tertiary Institution

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An Analysis Of Students Participation Of The 18+ Warning Sign In Alcohol Advertisements In Nigeria Tertiary Institution


Abstract


Advertising has been identified as one of the factors that increase the likelihood of alcoholic beverage consumption especially among the youth (Alcohol Concern, 2013). Through the use of advertising execution techniques such as humour, celebrity endorsement and music, advertisers are able to embed images that resonate with vulnerable youths. In spite of the documented social and health repercussions of alcohol consumption and little knowledge of warning sign among adults, literature still show that the relationship between advertising warning signs and alcohol consumption is an understudied area. The study examined the attitude of Nigerian university undergraduates to the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements.

The study adopted the survey research design. The target population of the study was 195,000 undergraduates from nine selected universities in South-West, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in the selection process. Purposive sampling was used to select three states (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo), based on concentration of universities in the states. The universities in the selected states were stratified into Federal, State and Private. Three universities were purposively selected from each state (one from each stratum). Gay, Geoffrey and Peter’s formula was adopted to draw the sample size of 1,950 respondents who were proportionately distributed to the nine selected universities. A validated questionnaire was used as the instrument. The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients for the constructs ranged from 0.735 to 0.945. Response rate was 95.7%. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analyses.

The findings revealed that there was significant relationship between students’ awareness of the 18+ warning sign and their attitudes towards consumption (r=0.242; p<0.05). There was significant positive relationship between students’ recognition of the 18+ warning sign and attitudes towards consumption (r=0.485; p<0.05). There was also a significant positive relationship between students’ perception of the credibility of the 18+ warning sign and attitudes towards consumption (r=0.664; p<0.05). It was found that the 18+ sign significantly influenced attitudes of the underage towards consumption (R2=0.494; p<0.05). Demographic variables significantly influenced the attitudes of undergraduates towards the 18+ warning sign (R2=0.017; p<0.05).

The study concluded that the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements discouraged undergraduates’ consumption of alcoholic beverages. The study recommended that advertisers, as sponsors of the promotional messages that promote alcohol consumption, should intensify the use of the 18+ warning sign and other warning labels for the purpose of being socially responsible. Also advertising relevant agencies in line with existing regulations should intensify efforts at monitoring the content of advertisements to ensure compliance with set standards.

Keywords: Alcohol advertising, Awareness, Perception, Alcohol consumption, Alcoholic beverage


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Alcohol is perhaps the most commonly used drug among adolescents. It is a ubiquitous toxin and the excess consumption of it can harm almost any organ or system of the body (Anderson, 2007). Alcohol consumption carries a risk of adverse health and social consequences as a result of drunkenness; it is responsible for a range of social, health and economic harms which tend to be most pronounced among the youths (Australian Medical Association, 2012). The harms caused by excessive alcohol consumption as highlighted by Chikere and Mayowa (2011) includes worldwide disease of esophageal cancer, liver cancer, homicide, epilepsy, cirrhosis of the liver and so on.

Alcohol consumption in the past decades was basically used at ceremonies for entertainment, but in Nigeria today, the quantity and reason for consumption are rapidly changing (Chikere & Mayowa, 2011). The new trend of alcohol consumption among young people in Nigeria today contributes to Nigeria’s ranking among thirty countries with highest per capita consumption of alcohol globally (World Health Organization, 2004). The quantity of consumption by the Nigerian youths is what seem to result in an increased burden of alcohol-related problems such as addiction, poor academic performance, risky driving, health issues, to mention a few (Dumbili, 2013). Despite the effort to prevent underage alcohol consumption, it is still a persistent public health problem (Komro & Toomey, 2002).

The role of advertising as a possible stimulus to alcohol consumption and as a contributor to the abuse of alcohol has in recent years been controverted because advertising has been associated with underage purchase and consumption of alcohol (Nelson, 2001). Arens (2006) defined advertising as “a structured and composed non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products (good, services and ideas) by identified sponsors, through various media” (p. 7). Advertising creates the impression that, for a relatively small expenditure, young people can psychologically connect to positive fantasy places, lifestyle and personality characteristics it portrays. Advertising is one potential source of information for young people about the cost of alcohol and its benefits and information supplied by advertising can result in more positive expectancies about alcohol, which can change actual or intended consumption behavior (Saffer, 2002).

The effect of alcohol advertising can be found in the effect of alcohol consumption behavior of adolescents. Alcohol advertisements become attractive to young people in early adolescence, between the ages of ten (10) and fourteen (14). However, exposure to alcohol advertising increases the likelihood that an adolescent will start consuming alcohol and if such adolescent has already been consuming alcohol, there are chances that consumption will increase (Bouwmeester, n.d; Jones & Gordon, 2013). Alcohol advertisements are seen by youths on different communication media, but television advertising seems to be the most powerful means of marketing alcohol because children and youths spend more time watching television than using any other type of media. (Australian Medical Association, 2012). Radio advertising and product placement in television programmeming provide additional avenues for promoting alcoholic beverages (Australian Medical Association, 2012). Children have been found to identify alcohol advertisements as the ones they like most among the advertisements to which they have been exposed, and their liking of alcohol advertisements has been linked to alcohol consumption among the youth (Gunter, Hansen and Touri, 2008). This was further re-affirmed in the statement of Anderson (2007) which states thus:

The adolescent brain undergoes major development, which makes adolescents more vulnerable to impulsivity with greater sensitivity to pleasure and reward. Young people who already have problems related to alcohol are likely to be particularly vulnerable to alcohol advertising, with the vulnerability increasing with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol advertising manipulates adolescents’ vulnerability by shaping their attitude, perceptions and particularly expectances about alcohol use, which then influence youth decisions to drink. This vulnerability is exacerbated by the enormous exposure to commercial communications, not only through traditional media, which are highly targeted to young people (p. 10).

Young people are at risk of alcohol related harm as a result of their body size and lack of experience with alcohol. The greater the amount of alcohol consumed during adolescence, the greater the risk as a young adult (Anderson, 2007). Majority of the advertisements of alcohol on television, newspapers and magazines and even on billboards have the 18+ sign and this implies that alcohol consumption is for people of eighteen (18) years and above. There are empirical evidences that there is a relationship between alcohol advertisements and positive attitude towards alcohol among young people, based on the appealing nature of alcohol advertisements to them. Saffer (2002) concludes that alcohol advertising affects knowledge, attitude and intentions to drink which is believed to affect drinking and there is therefore, a conclusion that there is positive link between alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption.

Grube (2004) suggests that a large number of alcohol advertisements link drinking with valued personal attributes such as elegance, sociability, physical attractiveness and also with desirable outcomes which includes success, pleasure, relaxation, romance and adventure. Young people find alcohol advertisements with these attributes appealing and they are attracted to them. Due to the appeals, the content of advertisements is related to expectancies about the use of alcohol among the young ones. There is however, considerable evidence that some particular alcohol brands that appeal to the young ones are created and targeted at young people (Anderson, 2007). There is also evidence that cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students (Anderson, 2007). There are some elements that youths are attracted to, they are particularly drawn to elements of music, story, characters and humour (Anderson, 2007).

Varied responses can be exhibited by young people to alcohol advertising and these responses perhaps include awareness, perception, recognition and restraint. Attitude towards advertisements and perceptions of their messages can sometimes represent important variables which can mediate post-exposure influence of advertisements. Alcohol advertisements and the brands they promote may be noticed and recognized by young adults even long before they start drinking alcoholic beverages (Gunter et al., 2008). There is a concern that exposure of young people to alcohol advertisements could create favourable dispositions towards drinking and could also play a part in triggering early onset of alcohol consumption. There is however, a relationship between alcohol advertising and the onset or initiation of alcohol consumption among young adults. Alcohol advertising shapes the attitude, perceptions and expectancies around alcohol use which results in youth decisions to drink (Gunter et al., 2008; Chen, Grube Bersamin, Waiters & Keefe, 2005).

In Nigeria, advertising practice is guided by the statutory regulating body known as Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON). The provisions in the advertising code of ethics cover electronic, print, outdoor media and even cinemas / viewing centers. This code of conduct is provided under Article 32-37 of the 5th code of the advertising practice. According to these articles, advertising of alcoholic beverages shall not be exposed in children’s religious and sport programmes, children, sportsmen / women shall not be used as models, it shall not employ religious or medical suggestions or connotations, shall not be sited within a radius of 200 metres from the nearest perimeter fence of any place of worship, hospitals, schools or motor parks (APCON, 2012).

Despite the efforts of APCON to regulate drinking among the youths and the underage, alcohol advertisements still seem to be appealing to the youths and even to be targeted at them. High levels of brand recognition among the youths and the underage illustrates the weakness of this current regulation because most of these young ones are exposed to alcohol advertising on the internet which could bring about difficulty in preventing underage exposure to alcohol advertising (Alcohol Concern, 2013). With the rate at which things are going which might later result in the total ban of alcohol advertising, alcohol industries, came up with an industry-based regulation which is the 18+ sign, in order to prevent underage drinking. The 18+ sign, implies that alcohol consumption is for people that are eighteen (18) years and above. In the light of this, this study seeks to investigate the attitude of university undergraduates in Southwestern Nigeria to the 18+ sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite regulations to protect the youth and underage from alcohol advertising, they are still regularly exposed to high level of alcohol advertising, young people are exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, radio, internet and in print media, whether they are targeted by advertisers or not (Smith and Foxcroft, 2009). The use of alcohol among the youths and the underage has been a major public health concern because drinking among these youths can result in a number of negative consequences such as alcohol addiction, accidents, poor academic performance, risky sex, injuries and even untimely death. It is has been observed that the earlier the age young people start to drink and the more they drink at a young age, the more they are likely to become addict and suffer alcohol related harm (Anderson, 2007).

Despite the fact that advertisements of alcoholic beverages on television, print media and even on billboards carry the 18+ sign which is supposed to serve as a deterrent to the underage, most of these young adults do not seem to be aware of the sign. Many young people start to drink at an earlier (Australian Medical Association, 2012). Another concern over alcohol advertising is the fact that advertising has frequently associated alcohol consumption with themes such as fun, friendship and humour. Much of these alcohol advertising goes beyond describing the specific qualities of the alcoholic beverage to creating a glamorous and pleasurable image that may be attractive and appealing to youths, even the underage. The university undergraduates in Nigeria today are perhaps dominated by the young adults and adolescents who should be educated on the adverse effect of alcohol consumption on health and academic performance. The attitude of these university undergraduates to the 18+ sign in these alcoholic beverages (Trophy, 33 larger beer, Golgberg, Stout, Heinekens and so on) advertisements were what constituted the focus of this study.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to ascertain the attitude of university undergraduates to the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements.

The specific objectives are to:

  1. To evaluate the effectiveness of 18+ warning sign placed on alcoholic drinks as a form of risk communication among Students.
  2. To assess the risk perceptions of Students towards 18+ warning sign in alcohol.
  3. To find out the attitude of students with regards to alcohol use

1.4 Research Question

  1. Is 18+ warning sign placed on alcoholic drinks as a form of risk communication effective among Students?
  2. What was the risk perception of Students towards 18+ warning sign in alcohol?
  3. What was the attitude of students towards alcohol consumption?

1.5 Significance of the Study

In understanding the influence of the risk communication strategy under study, risk communicators in different fields would be able to come up with better risk communication strategies. The findings of this study enable the Nigerian government and NAFDAC to draw conclusions regarding the behaviour of alcohol consumption among the youth at the university. These findings also would provide a resourceful reference for policy makers and other major stakeholders with regards to finding effective measures to curb the vice. The findings of this study would fill the knowledge gap, which is apparent from literature review with regard to the study of the effectiveness of 18+ warning sign as risk communication. Most studies regarding alcohol use and abuse in Nigeria have focused on school going children and other special groups. There was need to carry out research targeting students at the university and other tertiary academic institutions.

The findings of this study would enable Schools to understand the problem of excessive alcohol consumption among their students. The findings would also shed light on the challenges of curbing the vice and highlight the depth of the problem. With this resource, they could develop effective risk communication strategies tailor-made for their students.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The population for this study was drawn from Nigerian public and private universities. Most youth in Nigeria get the opportunity to explore their freedom once they join the university or college. This freedom gives them the chance to indulge in alcohol consumption. Public universities in Nigeria have students from varied socio-economic groups and cultures. The target population was drawn from Universities in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo, in South West, Nigeria.


1.7 Limitations and Delimitations of the Study

Being a study about a sensitive subject area, it was anticipated that most respondents would shy off from providing truthful and accurate information. To combat this, the study employed the help of research assistants who are students at the university. The respondents found it easier to open up and converse freely with their peers. Participants were also assured of anonymity and that the information they provided would only be used to achieve academic pursuits and not for any other reason.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Risk Communication:

It is the art used to provide an audience with accurate information that is not spun to help people make sound decisions (Fischhoff, 2011). For this study, risk communication refers to the message contained on the 18+ warning sign found on alcoholic drinks.

Risk Perception:

It is an individual’s belief of the likelihood of suffering from the indicated negative effects when they indulge in a given risky behaviour (Brewer, 2004). This study sought to find out whether Students believed that they are likely to suffer from the negative effects of excessive alcohol consumption.

18+ Warning Sign:

In this study, 18+ warning sign refer to the labels that appear on alcoholic drinks bottles like beers and canned alcoholic drinks. The label contains a message warning the consumer about the effects of excessive alcohol consumption and under age drinking.

Influence:

In this study, influence refers to the behavioural or psychological effect that risk communication will have on an individual (Hak-Seon, 2012).

Alcohol Abuse:

The Centre for Disease Control (CDC) defined alcohol abuse as heavy drinking (over 15 drinks per week for men and over 8 drinks per week for women), binge drinking (over 5 drinks in 2 hours for men and over 4 drinks for women) and the use of alcohol by people under the legal drinking age. In this study, excessive alcohol use refers to consuming alcohol to the point of getting drunk which may lead to dependence (WHO, 2001).


Chapter Five


Discussions, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Discussion of Key Findings

18+ warning sign Placed on Alcoholic Drinks as a Form of Risk Communication were Effective among Students.
Scientific evidence reduces the occurrence of well-intended but ineffective communications (Fischhoff et al., 2011). To find out if the 18+ warning sign are effective the study first found out whether they are visible or salient enough. The findings of the study indicated that every student who claimed to have taken alcohol had seen the 18+ warning sign before. This means that the design and placing of the labels has been done properly.

Although technically the 18+ warning sign appeared to be an effective medium for risk communication, 88.4% of Students who participated in the study did not believe that the 18+ warning sign could influence the risk perceptions of their colleagues and more so, lead to responsible alcohol consumption. The Health Belief Model holds that, people make health choices depending on their ability to believe that it is possible to make the necessary changes (Balbachetal.,2006).Even after attracting the attention of the students and communicating the risk, the warning label still did not suffice as an effective medium for influencing the risk perceptions to a level of achieving behaviour change among the Students. From the findings of the study, we can conclude that the 18+ warning sign definitely play a role in influencing the risk perceptions of university students even though it does not directly bring about behaviour change.

According to Wogalter et al. (2006), the framing of a risk communication message determines whether it will be ignored, misunderstood or accepted. According to the findings of the study, the message on the 18+ warning sign was not confusing. However, out of all the respondents who were given a sample of the warning message to read through and explain in their own words what they understood, none of them used the term “liver Cirrhosis”. The use of technical jargon can make laymen ignore a risk message (Covello et al, 1989). Poor framing of a risk message can make the audience to ignore it. Apart from the use of the term “Liver Cirrhosis”, the rest of the warning message is direct and unspun. Students were able to comprehend the message and even recall most of it. However, from the data collected, none of them mentioned the term ‘liver cirrhosis’ when asked to recall the risk message on the warning label.

From the empirical review, studies conducted in the US and Canada on 18+ warning sign on cigarette packets indicated that the effectiveness of 18+ warning sign reduces with time (Driezen et. al., 2013). Since their introduction by NAFDAC in 2010, the 18+ warning sign on alcoholic drinks in Nigeria have remained exactly the same. However, no research was done as soon as the 18+ warning sign on alcoholic drinks was introduced to find out whether there was any significant change in the risk perceptions and behaviour of alcohol consumers.

The health belief model explains that individuals make decisions when they believe that they are at risk (Wheeler, 2010). From this study, we can say that the model is limited in explaining what happens to that decision over time. Findings from the focus group discussion indicated that most students take the 18+ warning sign seriously when they start drinking. However, as they graduate to regular drinkers, they ignore the same.

Kasperson and Stallen (1990) suggested that most people are interested in learning about risks that are unfamiliar as opposed to those that are familiar. From the study, it is evident that with time, Students do not seem to take the risk message as seriously as before. This is indicated by the increase of the number of students who consume alcohol from first year to those in their 4th and 5th years. In the FGD, the key informants also suggested that apart from peer pressure, university students develop a sense of optimism bias and therefore do not believe that they can suffer the negative causes of excessive alcohol consumption after sometime.

Risk Perception of Students towards 18+ warning sign in alcohol

Over 50% of the student sample believed that Students had a serious alcohol abuse problem. However, most of the students who said they took alcohol only felt susceptible to health related risks. The essence of 18+ warning sign as risk communication is to make the audience risk averse. According to the health belief model, people will only make positive health decisions after they have considered the perceived susceptibility and severity, perceived threat and the perceived barriers and benefits (Wheeler, 2010). The respondents in this study mostly felt susceptible to the health problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure to the 18+ warning sign somewhat influenced their risk perceptions. However, most students did not consider the health problems as an immediate threat. The effects of drunk driving and impaired judgement that were more immediate did not seem as severe. Therefore, the 18+ warning sign did not influence their perceived threat as intended.

Data from the focus group discussion showed that the students were risk acceptant. They were not ready to forego the benefits of excessive or regular alcohol consumption on account of being safe. The benefits of the suggested change did not outweigh the cost of doing so. Although they adequately understood the risk message on the warning label, they did not seem to take it as seriously as their need to socialise and have a good time. According to HBM individuals will only make positive health decisions when they believe that it is possible (Balbach et al., 2006). The students do not believe that it is possible to forego the ‘benefits’ associated with drinking alcohol.

The students also portrayed aspects of optimism bias. A key informant in the focus group discussion revealed that most young people while at the university felt invincible. They actually did not believe that they could suffer from the negative effects of excessive alcohol consumption. When asked whether they believed that there was a problem of excessive alcohol consumption at the institution, most students readily accepted. However, many did not believe that the use of 18+ warning sign could bring any positive change.


5.2 Conclusions

  1. Risk communication through the use of 18+ warning sign is a powerful tool especially in the fight against excessive alcohol consumption. Excessive alcohol consumption is an important problem among university students across Nigeria and as such, there is need to come up with effective ways to curb the vice. University students are a significant group in the society and problems affecting them affect the country’s future prosperity. From the researcher’s personal observation and a review of studies done among various universities and colleges in Nigeria, excessive alcohol consumption is a real problem.
  2. Excessive alcohol consumption may lead to dependence/addiction which has adverse effects to the health of the human body. The proponents of the HBM suggest that individuals make positive choices when they consider the consequences of not taking up the positive health behaviour as severe.
  3. 18+ warning sign, as a medium of risk communication, make ‘limited influence’ on the risk perception of university students towards excessive alcohol consumption. The 18+ warning sign exist amidst various other forms of risk communication on excessive alcohol consumption which also play a role in influencing risk perceptions and habits of alcohol drinkers. 18+ warning sign play an important role among university students in informing them of the dangers of excessive alcohol consumption. However, they do not make alcohol consumers feel at risk enough to stop their habit. It will be simplistic to say that the data from the field indicates that the 18+ warning sign only influence the risk perception and not the attitude of students. As the health belief model suggests, behaviour change starts with risk perception.
  4. 18+ warning sign play an important role as a constant reminder to an alcohol drinker. However, based on this study and previous ones it is important to highlight the fact that the effect of 18+ warning sign in influencing risk perceptions decreases with time. Therefore, more research needs to be carried out to find the best way to deal with the optimism bias amongst university students.
  5. The study has highlighted a gap that exists in research about 18+ warning sign in relation to alcohol abuse. A lot of research has been done in determining the effectiveness of 18+ warning sign on cigarette packets. Researchers need to apply the same vigour in carrying out research on 18+ warning sign found on alcoholic drinks so that risk communicators become more effective. This study marks the beginning of a focus on Nigeria and other developing countries when it comes to research on the influence of 18+ warning sign as tools of risk communication.
  6. If this research was not done, then we would not know whether the policy provided in chapter 10 of the Nigerian constitution is working in curbing alcohol abuse or not. The 18+ warning sign are part of a much bigger strategy to curb alcohol abuse in the country. We must therefore know whether it is meeting the objectives. This study will help NAFDAC to determine the policies that they need to come up with to curb alcohol abuse especially among the Nigeria youth at the universities.
  7. If this study was not done, we would not understand why the government, Nongovernmental organisations, NAFDAC and other stakeholders have put in a lot of effort in stopping excessive alcohol abuse among young people yet the problem still persists. The data has shown how complex the problem is and the many environmental factors that determine how effective a risk communication message will be.
  8. The study applied the health belief model (HBM) to make us understand the health decisions that Students make. It helped us to break down the thought process of a Student from the time they see the warning label to when they choose their drinking habit. Having this understanding will help risk communicators to find better ways to make their warning messages effective.
  9. 18+ warning sign have already been proven as an effective means of affecting risk perceptions and subsequent behaviour: For example, in cigarette smoking. This study, however, determined the influence 18+ warning sign have specifically on the risk perceptions of university students with regards to excessive alcohol consumption. This was therefore a much needed and timely study and the findings will go a long way in coming up with better research to understand the use of 18+ warning sign to curb excessive alcohol consumption among university students.

5.3 Recommendations

  1. Risk communicators including the Nigerian government, NAFDAC and other major stakeholders, in the fight against alcohol abuse in the country, need to carry out research to determine how effective the 18+ warning sign and other risk communication strategies are. The research needs to be done regularly as the effectiveness of risk communication messages changes with time because of various external and internal factors.
  2. Findings from this study also showed that the students’ drinking behaviour changed over time from when they started drinking alcohol. The research also needs to be done at a broader scope to get accurate data that will help in coming up with better risk communication strategies.
  3. Findings from the field indicate that it is necessary to change the term “liver cirrhosis” to a term that is more familiar to laymen; for example, “fatty liver”. Risk communicators need to come up with terms that their audience can easily relate to. The data indicates that 100% of the sample did not recall the term ‘liver cirrhosis’.
  4. Institutions of higher learning need to engage students in productive extracurricular activities so as to divert students’ attention away from excessive alcohol consumption. Data from the field indicates that students are in dire need of extra-curricular activities that are fun, affordable and that will help them unwind and bond. The university presents an enabling environment for alcohol use and abuse because students enjoy less supervision from parents and guardians. Some students also have a lot of free time in their hands and some extra money in their pockets. Quality extracurricular activities are therefore highly necessary.
  5. The government and universities must come up with regular anti-alcohol abuse campaigns. They need to work together with alcohol manufacturers as the youth are more likely to believe a source they consider impartial. The use of 18+ warning sign as a medium of risk communication has its place and should therefore be maintained after doing the necessary improvements.
  6. Knowledge of the negative effects of alcohol consumption acts as a basis of curbing the habit. Simply knowing the effects of alcohol consumption may not make the youth to reach at a point of behaviour change, but when supported with other initiatives it will achieve this objective. NAFDAC therefore needs to come up with supporting initiatives to ensure that the problem of excessive alcohol consumption among university students stops.

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