An Analysis Of The Use Of Social Media By Public Relations Practitioner For Effective Communication

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

An Analysis Of The Use Of Social Media By Public Relations Practitioner For Effective Communication


Abstract


This study was carried out on an analysis of the use of social media by public relations practitioner for effective communication using global communication Nigeria as a case study. The study was carried out to find out the extent to which social media have helped Glo in solving problems and complaints from its various publics, ascertain whether social media has enhanced the performance of public relations department of Glo, highlight the strength of socio-media as public relations tools and identify the challenges facing PRs practitioners in effective use of social media in their organization. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised ofGlo staff in lagos state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean score tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent social media have helped Glo in solving problems and complaints from its various publics is high. The study also revealed that the challenges facing PRs practitioners in effective use of social media in their organization includes: Inadequate fund/No unit for social media, Inadequate Social Media Experts, Poor Management Attitude and Low publics knowledge of social media. Therefore, it is recommended that public relations should be monitoring their organisation activities online, update it as appropriate and also check for those who may be §imitating their social media to defraud innocent people. To mention but few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Communication is a basic human need and for that reason, man has always found a means of satisfying this need. It is believed that no human society can function effectively if there is no exchange of ideas, experiences, etc between and among the people within the society since no man can live in isolation from others (Olayinka, 2015).

The earliest forms of trado-media, interpersonal and group forms of communication had the benefit of being easy to use and did not necessarily need complex technologies. The weaknesses of not being able to communicate to a large audience led to the development of mass media such as telegraph, newspapers, magazines, radio and television and to the recent Internet/ICT/ which has helped in broadening the scope of digital public relations (Olayinka, 2015).
Advancement in modern technology has revolutionized all facets of communication during the past decades. Access to people and information practically anywhere and anytime in the world has been quicker, cheaper and easier.
Kur (2004) in Awake magazine (2002) posits that the dynamic nature of the 2ls century and more centuries to come rests on technological revolution. No wonder, Marshall McLuhan, a Canadian English Professor in 1964 propounded the concept of “Global Village” regarding the entire globe as having the potential of becoming a “global community” where information and news about anything and anywhere in the world would be readily available for anyone’s consumption in any part of the world and without mincing word, the impact of International Network (Internet) in achieving this feat cannot be underestimated.

This new technology has compressed the whole world into a single electronic to where information about far and near can be exchanged and shared with just a click of mouse or touch of the screen (Olorede, 2011).

Adepoju et. al (2009). Observe that the internet is the host of many other media tagged socio media like Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, Eskimi, Whatsapp, e.t.c making information distribution faster, cheaper and easier especially for public relations practitioners whose job is to build, maintain and polish the image and integrity of the company. Public relations use social media to share organisations views, opinions, e-releases, seek the opinion of publics, make feedback easier and faster i.e it enhanced effective two ways of communication.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Due to the rise in social media use among consumers around the world, there has been an increase in the use of social media as tactic for many public relations practitioners to track their consumers and relate with them.
Because we are in the era of consumer satisfaction due to heavy competition. The major concern of this research is to ascertain how social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, Instagram e.t.c has influenced the practice of public relations especially in creating and maintaining mutual understanding for better interaction within internal and external publics.

Also, imitation of web pages and sharing of fake or untrue information to consumers by fraudsters is another challenge identified imaging somebody imitates or design a Facebook official page of Dangote and send “you have won tone of cement in our company quickly pay 10,000 to double your tones: this offer is available only today and tomorrow”. This brings a setback on the extent to which social media can be used as PRs tools.

Although others have examined some part of the contribution of new communication media to the practice of public relations, there are fewer studies looking at how public relations practitioners actually are using these new media.

To this end, the research examing the influence of social media as an effective platform for public relations especially in a telecommunication organisation.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine the influence of social media as an effective platform for public relations especially in a telecommunication organisation.

Other objectives of this study are:

  1. To find out the extent to which social media have helped Glo in solving problems and complaints from its various publics.
  2. To ascertain whether social media has enhanced the performance of public relations department of Glo.
  3. To highlight the strength of socio-media as public relations tools.
  4. To identify the challenges facing PRs practitioners in effective use of social media in their organization.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. To what extent have social media helped Glo in solving problems and complaints from its various publics?
  2. Have social media enhanced the performance of public relations department of Glo?
  3. What are the strength of socio-media as public relations tools?
  4. What are the challenges facing PRs practitioners in effective use of social media in their organization?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The social media is not used by the public relations practitioner for effective communication.
  • Ha: The social media is used by public relations practitioner for effective communication.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research is relatively new to the field of mass communication and public relations, yet only a few people have ever written on social media and its contribution to public relations profession or practice.

Therefore, being new research, it will benefit individuals, corporate bodies, government, researchers, students, media professionals and a host of others

The study is to reveal how socio-media can be translated into powerful tools in the hand of innovative and creative public relations especially in building public confidence and effective interaction.

Individuals will benefit from this study as they will know the best way to use and react to social media messages and information.

Future researchers who may what to carry out research in this area or related aspect will find this material useful, while it forms bulk of academic materials.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research focuses on the effect of social-media on the practices of public relations with a reference to the global communication Nigeria especially public relations and customer care departments. However, the demography of the respondents within GLO will be examined before the administration of the data collection instrument (questionnaire) such factors include but not limited to age, sex, education, work experience, etc.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Operational Definition of the Terms

Public:

These are the Glo internal public and the external public usually the subscribers, staff, government, hosting community, etc whose activities influence global communication.

Public Relations:

This refers to as various efforts to deliberate planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understandings between Glo and all its subscribers, government, staff etc

Relations:

The way in which Glo deals with all its Public, including staffs, subscribers etc.

Social Media:

A group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of web 2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram etc.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on an analysis of the use of social media by public relations practitioner for effective communication using global communication Nigeria as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on an analysis of the use of social media by public relations practitioner for effective communication using global communication Nigeria as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to find out the extent to which social media have helped Glo in solving problems and complaints from its various publics, ascertain whether social media has enhanced the performance of public relations department of Glo, highlight the strength of socio-media as public relations tools and identify the challenges facing PRs practitioners in effective use of social media in their organization.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents areGlo staff in lagos state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The extent social media have helped Glo in solving problems and complaints from its various publics is high.
  2. Social media have enhanced the performance of public relations department of Glo.
  3. The strength of socio-media as public relations tools includes: It is effective for mass communication, it is a Cheap Channel, It has No Geographical Border and It is Instantaneous.
  4. The challenges facing PRs practitioners in effective use of social media in their organization includes: Inadequate fund/No unit for social media, Inadequate Social Media Experts, Poor Management Attitude and Low publics knowledge of social media.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Organizations should always assess their existing corporate social media strategy in order to identify actions which generate the most feedback;
  2. Organizations should always apply established industrial best practices that foster online relationship building.
  3. Public relations should pay serious attention to the online presence of their organization because out of the about 7.4 billion world population, over 3.5 billion people are are online according to (Cisco, §2018).
  4. Public relations should be monitoring their organisation activities online, update it as appropriate and also check for those who may be §imitating their social media to defraud innocent people.
  5. The growth of social media have led to the production of numerous resources that can be used to assist in the measurement of social media campaigns. It is recommended that public relations practitioners tap into these resources and begin taking appropriate measure of their social media efforts.

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