Analysis On Selected Physio-Chemical And Microbiological Properties Of Upper Otamiri River

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Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology (SLT)

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology (SLT)


Water samples were collected from Otamiri River at three different sites (Egbu, Emmanuel Collage and Polytechnic Junction Nekede) for a period of four months. The water samples collected were analyzed for some physico-chemical and microbiological parameters which include PH, Temperature Total dissolved solids, BOD, Dissolved Oxygen Zinc, Copper (heavy metals) colour, Odour, Taste, Appearance using standard procedures. The physio-chemical parameters investigated and their mean values for the rainy months and that of the dry months are as follows:Temperature 24.60c (33.30c), PH 6.27 (7.97), conductivity 23.7sus/cm3 (73.08 us/cm3) TSA 11.87 mg/l (57mg/l), TSS 2.53mglc (4.3mg/l), colour 58.3 PTCO (81.7 PTCO), Dissolved oxygen 4.5mglc, BOD 3.42mglc, Copper 0.20(0.12mg/l), Zinc 0.34mglc (0.12mg/l), Nitrate 0.2 (0.68mg/l) and fecal coliform was above WHO standard for drinking water. The results showed that, water from Otamiri River is unsafe for drinking, since the values of most parameters investigates did not meet with the WHO standard and could be a public health concern.

The table of content is in the MS-Word version of this material



A River is a natural water course, (Merriam 2010), usually fresh water, flowing toward an ocean, lake or another River. The chemistry of Rivers is complex and depends on inputs from atmosphere and the inputs from man’s activities in an area and our growing population is placing great demands upon natural fresh water resources (Waziri et al., 2009). The characteristics of water quality are basically classified as physical, chemical and biological.

The availability of good water quality is an indispensable feature for preventing diseases and improving quality life (Oluduro and Aderiye 2007).

Rivers have been used as a source of water, for obtaining food and as a means of disposing waste. Therefore, it is important that water for drinking and other uses should be analyzed to assess the level and nature of pollution (WHO, 2005). It is also important in water quality studies to know the amount of organic matter present in the system and the quantity of oxygen required for stabilization of the water.

The impact of organic pollutants on water quality in this work is expressed in terms of the biochemical oxygen demand which depend on the dissolved oxygen (DO) and Total Dissolved solids (IDS) on the other hand is used to defined the organic content of the river and the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) respectively, Efe, Ogban, Horsefall and Akporhonor (2005).


The objectives of this project work are:

  1. To study and examine of the water quality through analysis of some physico-chemical properties.
  2. To determine the levels of some pollution indicators and comparing the results with WHO acceptable standards for drinking water.

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials. A musician as well as a developer with the interest of Nigeria students at heart. If you need a professional website, contact him via WhatsApp or phone call @ 08143831497 to get the best.

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