Analysis On Selected Physico-Chemical And Microbiological Properties Of Upper Otamiri River

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Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT


This project work is dedicated to the Almighty God the foundation of all knowledge and the author and finisher of my faith.


My deepest appreciation goes to my supervisor Mr. Nwachukwu, V. N. (HOD) Fishery for his immense and wonderful co-operation and guidance throughout my days of project labour, Ms. D. Odum, my Head of Department (H. O. D), my special thanks goes to my parents Mr. and Mrs. T . Ezeoke, my beloved sister Mrs. Uchenna Anosike and my friends.

Above all, I thank the Almighty God for the strength, and ability to withstand the stress of this course.


Water samples were collected from Otamiri River at three different sites (Egbu, Emmanuel Collage and Polytechnic Junction Nekede) for a period of four months. The water samples collected were analyzed for some physico-chemical and microbiological parameters which include PH, Temperature Total dissolved solids, BOD, Dissolved Oxygen Zinc, Copper (heavy metals) colour, Odour, Taste, Appearance using standard procedures.

The physio-chemical parameters investigated and their mean values for the rainy months and that of the dry months are as follows:Temperature 24.60c (33.30c), PH 6.27 (7.97), conductivity 23.7sus/cm3 (73.08 us/cm3) TSA 11.87 mg/l (57mg/l), TSS 2.53mglc (4.3mg/l), colour 58.3 PTCO (81.7 PTCO), Dissolved oxygen 4.5mglc, BOD 3.42mglc, Copper 0.20(0.12mg/l), Zinc 0.34mglc (0.12mg/l), Nitrate 0.2 (0.68mg/l) and fecal coliform was above WHO standard for drinking water.

The results showed that, water from Otamiri River is unsafe for drinking, since the values of most parameters investigates did not meet with the WHO standard and could be a public health concern.

Table Of Content

  • Title page i
  • Certification ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content vi

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Objectives of the Study

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature Review
  • 2.1.1 Colour
  • 2.1.2 Taste of Odour
  • 2.1.3 PH (Hydorogen Ion Concentration)
  • 2.1.4 Temperature
  • 2.1.5 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
  • 2.1.6 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
  • 2.1.7 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
  • 2.1.8 Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
  • 2.1.9 Conductivity
  • 2.1.10 Zinc and Copper (Heavy metals)
  • 2.1.11 Feacal Coliform

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Materials and Methods
  • 3.1 Description of Study
  • 3.2 Sources/ Locations
  • 3.3 Data Collection
  • 3.4 Determination of Physico-Chemical Properties
  • 3.4.1 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
  • 3.4.2 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
  • 3.4.3 Temperature (0C)
  • 3.4.4 PH (Hydrogen Ion Concentration)
  • 3.4.5 Conductivity
  • 3.4.6 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
  • 3.4.7 Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
  • 3.4.8 Colour
  • 3.4.9 Odour and Appearance
  • 3.4.10 Copper
  • 3.4.11 Zinc (Zn)
  • 3.4.12 Coliform

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Results and Discussion
  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • Reference
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

A River is a natural water course, (Merriam 2010), usually fresh water, flowing toward an ocean, lake or another River. The chemistry of Rivers is complex and depends on inputs from atmosphere and the inputs from man’s activities in an area and our growing population is placing great demands upon natural fresh water resources (Waziri et al., 2009). The characteristics of water quality are basically classified as physical, chemical and biological.
The availability of good water quality is an indispensable feature for preventing diseases and improving quality life (Oluduro and Aderiye 2007).

Rivers have been used as a source of water, for obtaining food and as a means of disposing waste. Therefore, it is important that water for drinking and other uses should be analyzed to assess the level and nature of pollution (WHO, 2005). It is also important in water quality studies to know the amount of organic matter present in the system and the quantity of oxygen required for stabilization of the water.

The impact of organic pollutants on water quality in this work is expressed in terms of the biochemical oxygen demand which depend on the dissolved oxygen (DO) and Total Dissolved solids (IDS) on the other hand is used to defined the organic content of the river and the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) respectively, Efe, Ogban, Horsefall and Akporhonor (2005).

1.1 Objectives Of The Study

The objectives of this project work are:

  1. To study and examine of the water quality through analysis of some physico-chemical properties.
  2. To determine the levels of some pollution indicators and comparing the results with WHO acceptable standards for drinking water.

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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