Analysis On Selected Physico-Chemical And Microbiological Properties Of Upper Otamiri River
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This project work is dedicated to the Almighty God the foundation of all knowledge and the author and finisher of my faith.
My deepest appreciation goes to my supervisor Mr. Nwachukwu, V. N. (HOD) Fishery for his immense and wonderful co-operation and guidance throughout my days of project labour, Ms. D. Odum, my Head of Department (H. O. D), my special thanks goes to my parents Mr. and Mrs. T . Ezeoke, my beloved sister Mrs. Uchenna Anosike and my friends.
Above all, I thank the Almighty God for the strength, and ability to withstand the stress of this course.
Water samples were collected from Otamiri River at three different sites (Egbu, Emmanuel Collage and Polytechnic Junction Nekede) for a period of four months. The water samples collected were analyzed for some physico-chemical and microbiological parameters which include PH, Temperature Total dissolved solids, BOD, Dissolved Oxygen Zinc, Copper (heavy metals) colour, Odour, Taste, Appearance using standard procedures.
The physio-chemical parameters investigated and their mean values for the rainy months and that of the dry months are as follows:Temperature 24.60c (33.30c), PH 6.27 (7.97), conductivity 23.7sus/cm3 (73.08 us/cm3) TSA 11.87 mg/l (57mg/l), TSS 2.53mglc (4.3mg/l), colour 58.3 PTCO (81.7 PTCO), Dissolved oxygen 4.5mglc, BOD 3.42mglc, Copper 0.20(0.12mg/l), Zinc 0.34mglc (0.12mg/l), Nitrate 0.2 (0.68mg/l) and fecal coliform was above WHO standard for drinking water.
The results showed that, water from Otamiri River is unsafe for drinking, since the values of most parameters investigates did not meet with the WHO standard and could be a public health concern.
Table Of Content
- Title page i
- Certification ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of content vi
- 1.0 Introduction
- 1.1 Objectives of the Study
- 2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1.1 Colour
- 2.1.2 Taste of Odour
- 2.1.3 PH (Hydorogen Ion Concentration)
- 2.1.4 Temperature
- 2.1.5 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
- 2.1.6 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
- 2.1.7 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
- 2.1.8 Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
- 2.1.9 Conductivity
- 2.1.10 Zinc and Copper (Heavy metals)
- 2.1.11 Feacal Coliform
- 3.0 Materials and Methods
- 3.1 Description of Study
- 3.2 Sources/ Locations
- 3.3 Data Collection
- 3.4 Determination of Physico-Chemical Properties
- 3.4.1 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
- 3.4.2 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
- 3.4.3 Temperature (0C)
- 3.4.4 PH (Hydrogen Ion Concentration)
- 3.4.5 Conductivity
- 3.4.6 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
- 3.4.7 Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
- 3.4.8 Colour
- 3.4.9 Odour and Appearance
- 3.4.10 Copper
- 3.4.11 Zinc (Zn)
- 3.4.12 Coliform
- 4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
- 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
A River is a natural water course, (Merriam 2010), usually fresh water, flowing toward an ocean, lake or another River. The chemistry of Rivers is complex and depends on inputs from atmosphere and the inputs from man’s activities in an area and our growing population is placing great demands upon natural fresh water resources (Waziri et al., 2009). The characteristics of water quality are basically classified as physical, chemical and biological.
The availability of good water quality is an indispensable feature for preventing diseases and improving quality life (Oluduro and Aderiye 2007).
Rivers have been used as a source of water, for obtaining food and as a means of disposing waste. Therefore, it is important that water for drinking and other uses should be analyzed to assess the level and nature of pollution (WHO, 2005). It is also important in water quality studies to know the amount of organic matter present in the system and the quantity of oxygen required for stabilization of the water.
The impact of organic pollutants on water quality in this work is expressed in terms of the biochemical oxygen demand which depend on the dissolved oxygen (DO) and Total Dissolved solids (IDS) on the other hand is used to defined the organic content of the river and the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) respectively, Efe, Ogban, Horsefall and Akporhonor (2005).
1.1 Objectives Of The Study
The objectives of this project work are:
- To study and examine of the water quality through analysis of some physico-chemical properties.
- To determine the levels of some pollution indicators and comparing the results with WHO acceptable standards for drinking water.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
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Use, Your Gestures:
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Prepare For The Questions:
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The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
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2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.