Analysis On Selected Physico-Chemical And Microbiological Properties Of Upper Otamiri River

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology (SLT)

Analysis On Selected Physico-Chemical And Microbiological Properties Of Upper Otamiri


Water samples were collected from Otamiri River at three different sites (Egbu, Emmanuel Collage and Polytechnic Junction Nekede) for a period of four months. The water samples collected were analyzed for some physico-chemical and microbiological parameters which include PH, Temperature Total dissolved solids, BOD, Dissolved Oxygen Zinc, Copper (heavy metals) colour, Odour, Taste, Appearance using standard procedures.

The physio-chemical parameters investigated and their mean values for the rainy months and that of the dry months are as follows: Temperature 24.60c (33.30c), PH 6.27 (7.97), conductivity 23.7sus/cm3 (73.08 us/cm3) TSA 11.87 mg/l (57mg/l), TSS 2.53mglc (4.3mg/l), colour 58.3 PTCO (81.7 PTCO), Dissolved oxygen 4.5mglc, BOD 3.42mglc, Copper 0.20(0.12mg/l), Zinc 0.34mglc (0.12mg/l), Nitrate 0.2 (0.68mg/l) and fecal coliform was above WHO standard for drinking water.

The results showed that, water from Otamiri River is unsafe for drinking, since the values of most parameters investigates did not meet with the WHO standard and could be a public health concern.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Objectives of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1.1 Colour
  • 2.1.2 Taste of Odour
  • 2.1.3 PH (Hydorogen Ion Concentration)
  • 2.1.4 Temperature
  • 2.1.5 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
  • 2.1.6 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
  • 2.1.7 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
  • 2.1.8 Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
  • 2.1.9 Conductivity
  • 2.1.10 Zinc and Copper (Heavy metals)
  • 2.1.11 Feacal Coliform

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Description of Study
  • 3.2 Sources/ Locations
  • 3.4 Determination of Physico-Chemical Properties
  • 3.4.1 Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
  • 3.4.2 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
  • 3.4.3 Temperature (0C)
  • 3.4.4 PH (Hydrogen Ion Concentration)
  • 3.4.5 Conductivity
  • 3.4.6 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
  • 3.4.7 Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
  • 3.4.8 Colour
  • 3.4.9 Odour and Appearance
  • 3.4.10 Copper
  • 3.4.11 Zinc (Zn)
  • 3.4.12 Coliform

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • Reference
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

A River is a natural water course, (Merriam 2010), usually fresh water, flowing toward an ocean, lake or another River. The chemistry of Rivers is complex and depends on inputs from atmosphere and the inputs from man’s activities in an area and our growing population is placing great demands upon natural fresh water resources (Waziri et al., 2009). The characteristics of water quality are basically classified as physical, chemical and biological.

The availability of good water quality is an indispensable feature for preventing diseases and improving quality life (Oluduro and Aderiye 2007).

Rivers have been used as a source of water, for obtaining food and as a means of disposing waste. Therefore, it is important that water for drinking and other uses should be analyzed to assess the level and nature of pollution (WHO, 2005). It is also important in water quality studies to know the amount of organic matter present in the system and the quantity of oxygen required for stabilization of the water.

The impact of organic pollutants on water quality in this work is expressed in terms of the biochemical oxygen demand which depend on the dissolved oxygen (DO) and Total Dissolved solids (IDS) on the other hand is used to defined the organic content of the river and the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) respectively, Efe, Ogban, Horsefall and Akporhonor (2005).

1.1 Objectives Of The Study

The objectives of this project work are:

  1. To study and examine of the water quality through analysis of some physico-chemical properties.
  2. To determine the levels of some pollution indicators and comparing the results with WHO acceptable standards for drinking water.

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Based on the analysis of water parameters using various techniques, it can be concluded that Otamiri river water quality has degraded beyond reasonable doubt. This may have resulted from domestic and possibly agricultural wastes that are disposed directly to the river at various locations without treatment due to poor implementation of environmental regulations.

5.2 Recommendation

There is a need for routine checks to ascertain the suitability of these water sources so as to forestall (prevent) outbreaks of water borne diseases to the host community. This could be achieved through proper monitoring, effective public enlightenment and environmental awareness campaign programmes such as environmental education, seminars and workshop among others. The treatment of runoff including urban waste water being generated from all land use along the river channels should be enforced by law enforcement agency.
The resident along Otamiri river environment should embrace the culture of using waste incinerator and disposing management instead of discharging their waste to Otamiri river.

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