Analysis Of Reported Cases Of Crime (1996 to 2003)

Project and Seminar Material for Statistics

Analysis Of Reported Cases Of Crime (1996 to 2003)


Abstract


Criminality is part and parcel of human nature and society. That is why no society can claim to be completely free of crimes. But the types of criminal behaviour tend to follow the pattern of social and economic development of a given society. This study therefore focus on the trend of criminal activities in enugu state between 2000-2009. The survey research method was adopted in this work. The population is the total number of reported cases in Enugu State for the period of 2000 to 2009. Secondary data was used for this study. The data was collected from the Police headquarters, Enugu.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-distribution was used to answer some of the research questions as well as determine the hypothesis set for the study most prevalent crime in the state and if the rate of crime against persons is the same with crime against property.

From SPSS output, it is obvious that there are differences among the mean rate occurrence for various crimes for the period under study. Before establishing the most rampant form of crime, further testing using a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to find out if the differences were statistically significant.

From the findings, the rate of occurrence of major forms of crime in Enugu State can be ranked as follows – Assault, Armed Robbery, Unlawful Possession, Arson, Grievous Harm, Burglary, House Breaking Automobile theft, Rape, Murder, manslaughter, forgery and kidnapping.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 background to the Study

Crime is any act that is contrary to the law, which can lead one to punish accordingly. Nigeria is a country where things work on a reversible order. Some crimes are punishable by law, depend on the country. In our state (Enugu) to be precisely, some offences like cheating, rigging of election, stealing, advance free frauds (419), and many more are tend to be in reverse other. Any citizen that fall under crime may be punish depend on how the state used to punish their offenders, due to neglection. The rate of crime in Nigeria is a nagging one, such that it will be difficult to known the real criminals. However the word crime compasses the acts which are contrary to the law and the principle of National Justice, since the society has streamline crime to only armed robbery.

Crime causes loss of live and property as well as overwhelming fear of insecurity. These have serious consequences for democracy, economic development, social capital and associational life generally. Individual and societal aspirations for democracy, development, human rights, high standard of living are undermined by high level of crime.

Increase in violent crime and delinquency, is a common feature of countries in transition. This has been attributed to the uncontrollable nature of change in its formative stage, demobilization or dismantling of repressive security apparatuses used by previous authoritarian regimes in controlling crime and the unequal socio-economic opportunities brought about by economic liberalization programs. What differentiate societies in transition from one another with regard to increase in common crimes and disorders are the policies and strategies that have been adopted by the governments to address them. Countries that have invested more in social crime prevention and in finding peaceful solutions to their political problems through transparent processes appear to have managed rise in criminal deviance and discontent better than others. (Shaw 2001; Shearing & Kempa 2001 in Etannibi and Chukwuma, 2005).

The Nigerian experience can not be different. The first four years of transitional democracy in the country witnessed perceived and real increase in violent crime and disorder, so much so that safety and security issues ranked very high among citizens priority concerns. Increasing incidence of armed robbery led to a paralyzing fear which in turn affected economic and social life in the country. As a result of the growing rates and severity of criminality successive governments in the country since the early 1980s introduced diverse crime control measures, but without much success.

Following the introduction of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP) from 1984, the country started experiencing a serious contraction in the labour market. This resulted in a large proportion of youths, searching for jobs under the prevailing harsh economic conditions. The presence of this enormous pool of idle youths, who are both skilled and unskilled and sometimes homeless, created a fertile ground for deviant activities. This culminated in an increase in crime of different types, including drug-trafficking and drug abuse.

Based on the foregoing, the researcher felt the need to identify, describe and anlayse the trends in criminal activities in Enugu State, considering its importance to national development.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Most Nigerians agree that crime rates and insecurity in the country are very high and that over the last years, the country has experienced a steep rise in crime. Organized and non-organized crime and attendant vices such as smuggling of contrabands, especially firearms, counterfeiting, money-laundering, armed robberies, kidnapping, car hijacking, and human trafficking have become sources of worry for the Nigerian government. Likewise, incidents of high profile crime and politically motivated killings and kidnapping have lately compounded the complexity of the crime situation in the country.

The South East zone of the country appears to be the worst hit. Newswatch Magazine (July 5, 2010: 11) in its editorial described the south east zone as a no-go area because of violent crimes which include kidnapping, robbery and assassination. Scroll Magazine (July 5, 2010: 13) in its cover page story stated that the region has become a goldmine for hoodlums and criminal elements who have mastered the art of abducting innocent individuals including children for huge ransoms. Newswatch Magazine (July 5, 2010: 11) in its editorial went further to state that all these have created one huge spectra of crime and criminality out of a region where people are known for hard work and living peaceful lives.

On the recent kidnap of four journalists in Abia State on the 11th of July 2010 and the state of insecurity in the country. Agbese, Dan (2010) succinctly puts it this way.

“To state the uncomfortable and the obvious: we are all prisoners and potential victims of armed robbers and kidnapper. We live in cages surrounded by high walls and iron gates. We travel on our roads with two eyes in front and two at the back of our heads. The rich protect themselves with armoured vehicles and armed policemen or private security men. Our hearts are permanently in our mouths because whatever individual precautions we may take, we are collectively unprotected down the length and breath of the country”

It is the reported case of crime committed in the country, recorded. This is a research work which seeks to convey out an analysis of reported cases of crime from the year 1996 to 2003.


1.3 Aim and Objectives

  1. To critically examine whether the crime in Enugu state exhibit or display a trend.
  2. To compare the rate of crime between one class of crime and another.
  3. To find out whether the class of crime is independent or dependent of sex.
  4. To ascertain if seasons contributed to number of crime committed.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What are the factors that motivate people to commit crime in Enugu State?
  2. Which forms of crime are the most rampant in Enugu State?
  3. Is crime rate in Enugu State actually increasing or decreasing?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The research hypotheses that guided this study are as follows:

  1. HO: There are no significant differences among various forms of crime committed in the State.
  2. H0: There is no significant difference in the crime against persons and crime against property in the State.
  3. H0: There are no significant increases in the trend for crime as the year progresses
Classification of Crime
  1. FELONY (Crime against person)
  2. MISDEAMOUR (Offence against properties)
  3. SIMPLE OFFENCE(FELONY NOR MISDEAMOUR)
  4. FELONY- can be defined as a serious breaking of law, which may be sentence that lead to death. Example murder.
  5. MISDEAMOUR – can be defined as an unlawful act, which is not serious in nature it is punishable for more than six months (that’s penalty for a committee). Example Arson.
  6. SIMPLE OFFENCE – This neither felony nor misdeamour, it is punishable by imprisonment for less than six months, examples: forgery and unlawful possession.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study would be great vital to the general public, the government, the Nigeria police and other agencies of crime concerned.


1.7 The Scope and Coverage of the Study

Aim of this study and basis of the availability of data, where attention is given to the Enugu state central police station as a unit study. It is choosing as consequent of my interest in the study of crime in Enugu urban areas. The research work covers the analysis of cases of reported crime for period of eight year from January 1996 to December 2003.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The study was designed formally to cover more year is restricted to 8 years due to financial and constraints of time.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Case

Is a set of events, which demand action.

Offence

Is any unlawful act.

Imprisonment

This is the act of putting some one into prison for a period of time.

Prison

Is building that made for lawbreakers.

Constitutions

Are laws upon which government of a state or country is build up law are rules made by government of a nation.

Bribe

This is a process by which thing offered to influence a person to act in the favour of the giver.

Arson

It is unlawful setting up against one’s properties eg setting on fire of some one’s building or car.

Murder

It is the illegal deliberated of killing human beings. It is seriously law breaking which is under felony.

Kidnapping

This occur when there is problem between two parties and one of them decied to target where the other party is and take the party away for Assign, so that he/she can step down for him.

Forgery

Forgery is a crime that can emphasis where by a person is claiming what is not his belong by force. Instance, you can see where people of Ngwo is claiming a land from Nike people.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

This chapter deals with the conclusion, recommendations and suggestion for further studies.

5.1 Conclusion:

Poverty remains a key challenge and the main cause of rise in crime in most of the development societies. Poverty results out of bad leadership. In the Nigeria case, it is failure of leadership both at national and state levels. Ours is a case of resource cause theory.

From petty crime to high-scale security threats, the situation appears to be getting out of hand. Armed groups are having a field day so also are other criminal elements devising new means of remaining in the trade. If the situation is not quickly curtailed, it will harshly hamper the growth of Nigeria‟s economy, thereby showing the pace of development across the densely populated nation. Nobody wants to invest or do business in a place that is not safe. The poor state of security is threatening the growth of the economy.

The government should go beyond periodic donations of patrol vehicles, gunboats and other crime fighting equipments and critically address the core issues bedeviling the force and the society at large which of course is poverty.


5.2 Recommendations:

Based on the findings made, the following recommendations are made to help reduce crime rate in the state. Preserving political stability and effectiveness of democratic institutions to effectively pursue youth and employment revival, revamping the education system to coincide with local imperatives especially with regards to vocational training and skill development, rehabilitating criminal elements by equipping them with practical skills and returning them to mainstream activities, Enforcing creative poverty alleviation schemes that promote rapid enterprise development in both urban and rural areas, fighting institutional corruption and bureaucratic decadence in government agencies for effective policy implementation and revamping of the agricultural sector of the economy. This will not only feed the nation but create massive employment opportunities to the people.


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