Analysis Of Refrigeration System Utilizing Waste Heat On A Ship

Project and Seminar Material for Petroleum Engineering

Project and Seminar Material for Petroleum Engineering


Abstract


It is generally recognized that considerable energy savings could result from installing a waste heat recovery system in the exhaust of a Gas Turbine power plant. The present study proposes to use that recovered heat to supply heat to an absorption refrigeration system (ARS). Various sources and levels of extracted heat loads from exhaust gases were studied for possible utilization with the (ARS). Typical waste heat available loads were found to be in the range of 58-62% of the heat supplied to a frame 7 Gas Turbine unit. A comparative study of the Water-Multicomponent Salt Mixture, the conventional Water Ammonia and the Water-Lithium bromide systems was carried out for both single-stage and double-effect absorption cycles. The results showed that the Coefficient of Performance (C.O.P) is higher for Water-MCS mixture than that of the Water-LiBr solution.

Water-MCS mixture can also be used for a wide range of operating loads and conditions; therefore it is suitable for use in absorption refrigeration systems associated with variable load waste heat sources. Water-MCS mixture is approximately five times cheaper than LiBr, which makes the cooling system more economical. A laboratory experiment for a simple single-stage absorption system utilizing the Water-MCS mixture was constructed and operated. The system was tested to determine the thermal performance under variable operating conditions. Actual system C.O.P. values were found to follow the theoretical analysis trend but with less values.

 


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose Of The Study
  • 1.4 Scope Of Research

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Refrigeration Systems And Applications
  • 2.3 Current Applications Of Refrigeration
  • 2.4 Theoretical Analysis

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Available Heat Energy
  • 3.2 Absorption Refrigeration System
  • 3.3 Analysis Of Water-Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration System
  • 3.4 Analysis Of Water-Lithium Bromide And Water-Multicomponent Salt Mixture (Mcs) Systems

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Conclusion
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Maritime transport is a huge energy-consuming sector globally. Typically onboard energy is produced using diesel engine combustion. This power is used for propulsion and to generate electricity that is needed onboard. However, environmental and economic concerns have caused the maritime sector to explore alternative solutions in order to improve the efficiency of the energy usage system and to reduce their emissions. Diesel engine combustion produces pollutants like SOx and NOx [1]. Approximately 3.3% of global CO2 emissions are caused by shipping. The International Maritime Organization is the major global regulator for emissions in maritime transport. Moreover, the European Union has implemented a directive for sulfur emissions in specific control areas. These factors and the fact that the prices of fossil fuels are rising continuously have motivated the marine sector to reduce its fuel consumption [2]. Baldi and Gabrielii [3] described a methodology for performing a feasibility analysis of the installation of a waste heat recovery (WHR) system on a vessel. The method based on available data from ship operational profile. The various types of WHR technologies available on board ships were discussed from the perspective of technological principle and application feasibility by Shu et al. [4]. The focus was to provide a better understanding of the options available for WHR in order to improve fuel economy and environmental compliance.

A simulated study for a waste heat powered water-LiBr absorption cycle cooling system for a cargo ship was made by Cao et al. [2]. Several core components of a cooling system were modelled and validated. They used the data of a ship that was equipped with a WARTSILA 8RT-flex68-D engine for propulsion. The rated capacity of the engine was 25,040 kW. The single effect refrigeration system was simulated for space cooling. Heat was recovered by an economizer in a flue gas flow, using a circulating hot water cycle. Hot water was used as a heat source for the generator after which it is used for hot water production to meet shipboard hot water demands (residential, kitchen, and clinic demands). Both the condenser and the absorber were cooled with sea water. The chilled water cycle was cooled in the evaporator and the space cooling power was transferred to a heat exchanger to the mixture of outdoor air and recirculated indoor air. The simulations were done under Miami conditions.

The resulting COP is 0.64 for the absorption refrigeration cycle and for the whole system it was 0.6. The ship’s fuel consumption and the CO2 emissions were 62% less compared to vapor compression. The simulation was also done for weather conditions in Abu Dhabi and Baltimore. The fuel consumption and CO2 emissions reductions increased by up to 68% under warmer conditions (Abu Dhabi) compared to vapor compression. However under colder conditions (Baltimore) they decreased to 38%. The simulation result was also applied to a cruise ship, where the cooling demand is higher, and an 8.23% total energy consumption reduction (the fuel saving share) was found compared to vapor compression.

If the heat energy possesses the advantage to be “clean”, free and renewable, then this is probably considered as an adapted potential solution, which answers in even-time at an economic pre-occupation and ecological problem. Among the main research done, it is found that refrigeration system uses this free and renewable source. Among all the domestic and industrial appliances used today, refrigerators consume a considerable amount of energy. Using heat energy to run refrigerators is of great practical relevance nowadays.

The recovery of waste energy or waste heat recovery is heat, which is produced in a process by way of fuel combustion or chemical reaction and then dumped into the environment, even though it could still be re-used for some useful financial resolutions. In water cooled engines, the one third of the energy is wasted in exhaust gases. For such cases, vapour compression air conditioning system is used for cooling of cabins and in preservation of goods on board a ship.

At present, some effort has been devoted to the utilization of the vast amount of waste energy from diesel engines used aboard ships for refrigeration. There are several types of refrigeration technology being used for marine applications, including compression refrigeration, sorption refrigeration, and injection refrigeration. It needs extra energy to drive the compression and injection refrigeration systems, which leads to the increase of fuel consumption of ships. A sorption refrigeration system is driven by thermal energy and needs little electricity, and it can utilize the waste heat of the engine and improve the energy conversion efficiency. Therefore, fuel can be saved considerably. Both absorption and adsorption refrigeration are sorption refrigeration technologies


1.2 Statement Of Problem

Refrigeration plays a vital part in the preservation of perishable cargoes and provisions for the crew onboard vessels. In merchant vessels, the temperature of victuals and cargoes such as food, chemicals, liquefied gas etc. are controlled by the refrigeration plant of the ship. The main purpose of ship refrigeration plant is to prevent loss of the cargoes or perishables so as to ensure their safe transportation in good and healthy condition (Anish, 2016).The potentials inherent in converting heat and wasted energy from exhaust gas of ships is on the high. This firstly, mitigation of environmental pollution is applied here and a VAR type system can be supplied with this energy since they are mainly low grade energy and consist of mainly heat. Instead of allowing this waste heat to cause environmental hazards, the study examines how this heat can be converted to aid refrigeration by increasing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system by utilizing waste energy.


1.3 Purpose Of The Study

The main aim of the study is to analyze the refrigeration system utilizing waste heat on a ship. The process data of the exhaust gases and cooling water flows in different climate conditions and operation profiles is studied to estimate the refrigeration potential for ships in general.


1.4 Scope Of Research

The scope of this research work focuses on the design analysis of cooling system for a ship, using waste heat of the engine exhaust, without much effort on the engine performance.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion

The purpose of the present investigation was to investigate methods and means of utilizing the gas turbine waste heat in driving an absorption refrigeration system. According to the Gas Turbine waste heat analysis applied to PP7 &PP8 of (SEC-Center), each GT of frame 7 type could produce up to 50-60 MW of cooling effect The present study demonstrated that coupling the two technologies of recovery of waste heat to heat water and the operation of an absorption refrigeration system on that hot water could be a successful approach. The theoretical analysis for both the GT heat recovery system and the absorption refrigeration cycle showed that the suggested inexpensive heat recovery load would be in the form of hot water with an average temperature of 60 –85 oC, which will be the operating range of the absorption refrigeration cycle. Water-MCS system has the highest C.O.P. followed by the Water-Lithium Bromide and then the Ammonia-Water systems . The wide range of operating conditions is suitable for the absorption cooling systems associated with GT heat recovery system without any major crystallization problem.

A limited experiment was performed to obtain the operating range of a single-stage single- effect absorption refrigeration system utilizing Multi-component Salt Mixture (MCS) The experiment demonstrates clearly the possibility of building a simple and economical absorption refrigeration system utilizing (MCS) to use in association with heat recovery low temperature water heaters. The successful system gives a C.O.P. value up to 0.7 and accommodates driving temperatures between 60-75 oC. This proposed system could generate cooling chilled water at 4-6 oC, which can be utilized in different application [El Masry; O., 2002] in and around the Gas Turbine power plant. The full-integrated system deserves further study and economical assessment.


Analysis Of Refrigeration System Utilizing Waste Heat On A Ship


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