Analysis Of Properties Of Kaolin Deposits In Nigeria (Case Of Studies Of Kpankorogi And Ijero-Ekiti)

Project and Seminar Material for Petroleum Engineering

Analysis Of Properties Of Kaolin Deposits In Nigeria (Case Of Studies Of Kpankorogi And Ijero-Ekiti)


This study considered the mineralogical, elemental composition in form oxides and engineering properties such as particle size, specific gravity, bulk density; water content and atterberg limits of two kaolin deposits in Kpankorogi in Edu Local Government of Kwara State and in Ijero-Ekiti in Ijero-Ekiti Local Government Area, Ekiti State.This is with a view to assessing their potentials for Various industrial applications. The analyses includes X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and X-Ray Fluorescence(XRF). It was observed that the kaolin sample from Kpankorogi is dominated by Quartz and the one from Ijero- ekiti by Orthoclase. The result of the chemical analysis indicates the presences of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O¬3, TiO2, MnO, CaO, MgO, K2O, Na2O, CuO, ZmO, Cr2O5, V2O5 and Sc2O3. The X RD In particular, shows that Kpankorogi kaolin contains Quartz and Kaolinite while Ijero- Ekiti contains in addition to kaolinite,s orthoclase and Muscovite. Considering the possible applications of the two kaolin deposits, it was observed they do not meet the required standards completely in all instances.

Table of Contents

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Aim and Objectives of the Study
  • 1.2 Scope and Limitation of the Study
  • 1.3 Research Justification
  • 1.4 Problems Statement

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Historical Background of the Study
  • 2.2 Properties of Kaolin
  • 2.3 Uses of Kaolin

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Description of the Study Areas
  • 3.2 Method of Samples Collection
  • 3.3 Laboratory Analyses
  • 3.3.1 Moisture Content
  • 3.3.2 Bulk Density Determination
  • 3.3.3 Specific Gravity Determination
  • 3.3.4 Grain Size Analyses
  • 3.3.5 Atterberg Limit
  • Liquid Limit
  • Plastic Limit
  • Shrinkage Limit
  • 3.3.7 X.R.D. Analysis
  • 3.3.8 X.R.F. Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Properties of Kpankorogi and Ijere-Ekiti Kaolin Deposits
  • 4.2 Water Content Distribution
  • 4.2 Bulk Density
  • 4.3 Specific Gravity
  • 4.4 Atterberg Limits
  • 4.5 Sieves Analyses
  • 4.1.6 X-ray Diffraction
  • 4.6 X-ray Fluorescence

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

List of Tables

  • Table 4.1: Engineering and physical properties of the samples
  • Table 4.2: Grain Size Analysis of the samples
  • Table 4.3: Chemical composition of the Samples
  • Table 4.4: Mineralogical components of the Samples
  • Table 4.5 Major elemental oxides tested by kaolin sample compared with chemical and industrial specifications

List of Figures

  • Fig. 3.1: Map of Nigeria Showing Kwara and Ekiti State
  • Fig. 3.2: Map of Ekiti State indicating the study Area A
  • Fig. 3.3: Map of Kwara State indicating the Study Area B
  • Fig. 4.1: X-ray Diffractogram of Kpankorogi Kaolin Sample
  • Fig.4.2: X-ray Diffractogram of Ijero-Ekiti Kaolin Sample

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Kaolin is a clay rock and part of the group of industrial minerals with the chemical composition (Al2Si205 (OH)4.
It is a layered silicate mineral with one tetrahedral sheet linked through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet alumina i.e. structurally composed of silicate sheet (Si2O¬5) bonded to aluminum oxide/hydroxide layer Al2 (OH)4 called gibbsite layers and repeating layer of the mineral are hydrogen bonded together. (Rost, 1992; Bish, 1993; Klein and Kuribut, 1993; Slivka, 2002).

Kaolin is a plastic raw material, particular consisting of clay mineral kaolinite. In systematic mineralogy, Kaolin ranks among phyllosilicates, which are stratified clay minerals formed by a network of tetrahedral and octahedral layers. Phyllosillicates are classified into the main groups according to the type of layers, inter-layer contents, charge of the layers and chemical formulas. Besides kaolinite groups, serpentine, halloysite, pyrofylite, mica and montmorillonite groups also ranks among phylllosillicates. Group of kaolinites includes di-octahedral mineral with two layers and one silica (SiO4) tetrahedral layer and one aluminum (Al2(OH)4) octahedral layer. The layers are bondecd together by sharing oxygen anion between Al and Si together, these two layers are called platelets (Pauk,et al.,1962; Stejskal, 1971., Duda et al., and Hurlbut, 1993).

Kaolinite shares the same chemistry as the mineral halloysite, dickeite and necrite. The four minerals are polymorphs as they have the same chemistry but different structures. All the minerals were derived from chemical alteration of aluminum rich silicate minerals, such as feldspars. However, they could be found as sedimentary deposits as well as hydrothermal alteration product of rocks containing a high of alumino-silicate minerals.
Kaolin is formed under acidic conditions through weathering or hydrothermal change of feldspars, and to a lower extent also other weathered kaolin deposits, kaolin clay or may be a compound of kaolinite, sandstones and olitic ironstones, and less frequently also of pegmatite and hydrothermal deposit. The most significant kaolin deposits were formed through intensive weathering of rock rich in feldspars (granite, arkoses, certain types of ortho-gneisses and misgmatites).

Millions years ago, original material was decomposed by weathering, giving rise to kaolin and silica combined with higher or lower amounts of admixtures.(Bernard, el al; 1992).

1.1 Aim and Objectives of the Study

Aim of this study is:

  1. To determine the suitable industrial application of kaolin from location investigated.
  2. To achieve the above stated aim, the following objective will be carried out:
  3. Determination of mineralogical composition of the kaolin deposits
  4. Determination of the chemical/oxide composition of the deposits
  5. Determination of the physical and engineering properties of the kaolin deposits.

1.2 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The purpose of this project covers two deposits, the Kpankorogi and the Ijero-Ekiti kaolin deposits. Samples were collected from each of the deposits for oxide analyses, mineralogical analyses as well as the determination of the engineering and physical properties. The numbers of samples are limited due to cost constraint. A sample is collected from each of the deposits for both the oxides and mineralogical analyses. This particular study does not include reserve estimation, but this is recommended for future workers.

1.3 Research Justification

Since Kaolin is a widely used industrial material, determination of its chemical composition, mineralogical contents and engineering properties are very important. It will enable the suitable industrial and economic applications of Kaolin.

1.4 Problem Statement

Difficulty where encounter in this project research, during the samples collection. During the collection of samples digging where involved to get the appropriate samples, which is very tedious to dig.

More so, during the analyses of the of engineering properties of the samples in which problems occur by which some engineering properties was not able to carried out which it as been refer for the future work.

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

Compositional features and industrial applications of Kpankorogi and ijero Ekiti kaolin clay were analyzed based on mineralogy, Chemical composition and physical characteristics of the deposits. This is with the view to determining its suitability as industrial raw material. From the study, it is Obtained that kpankorogi kaolin clay deposit is predominantly Quartz but with high SiO2 and Al2O3 contents, while Ijero-Ekiti kaolin clay deposit is predominantly orthoclase with high SiO2 and Al2O3 contents.

We can therefore conclude that both the Kpankorogi and Ijero-Ekiti kaolin deposits can only be used industrially if beneficiated, because they do not completely meet all the required specifications in their natural form.

5.2 Recommendation

In other to have the best quality products and become one of the nations with high quality products, chemical, mineralogical and reliable geotechnical data on every mineral resource should be made available. This will go a long way to reduce importation and increase the standard of our indigenous or local industrial products. In view of this the following recommendations are made:

  1. Further work should be carried out on the engineering properties while the reserve estimation of these deposits should be done to ascertain the commercial potential of the deposits.
  2. Government of Nigeria should sensitize various industries on the numerous industrial applications of kaolin through their agencies
  3. Such as Raw Material Research and Development Council and others, so as to encourage mining and the use of kaolin.
  4. Fund should also be made available for extensive research work.
  5. Favorable environment should be provided for local and foreign investors in raw materials (kaolin inclusive) development.

Analysis Of Properties Of Kaolin Deposits In Nigeria (Case Of Studies Of Kpankorogi And Ijero-Ekiti)

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Analysis Of Properties Of Kaolin Deposits In Nigeria (Case Of Studies Of Kpankorogi And Ijero-Ekiti)


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