Analysis Of Industrial Waste Management Practice In Brewery Industry (A Case Study Of Guinness Nig. Plc, Benin City)

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Analysis Of Industrial Waste Management Practice In Brewery Industry (A Case Study Of Guinness Nig. Plc, Benin City)


In Nigeria and particularly in Benin City of Edo state, open dumping is still the most common household waste disposal method/practice. This type of practice is un hygienic and environmentally unfriendly. This research is aimed at effective household waste management practices in the study area, Benin City of Edo state. The research found that there are some other types of management or disposal method in practice in the study area, these include the use of packing and burning, dumping in pits outside the house and dumping in streets by residents, wheel barrows. Also included are scavengers, Ministry of Environment and private organizations that are involved in household waste. Data for the study include the use of observations, questionnaire administration and oral interviews in data gathering and analysis. The research, recommends that the state government should provide household waste management equipment and vehicles, generators on loan for waste management authorities. Waste management such as the construction of sanitary land fills, purchase of incinerators for recycling plants, encourage waste to wealth practices as this would actually reduce the amount of waste that would be physically available in the study area.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

One of the greatest hazards of man today is poor sanitary condition of his environment, which is being caused by his daily activities, such as waste generation, increase in population and attendant increase in agricultural, industrial and commercial activities.

Wastes are substances, materials or objects discarded as worthless or unwanted, defective or of no further value for human economic productive, activities or processes (Okechukwu, 1995).

U.S AD-Hoc Group for science and technology (1969), and Adegoke (1990) defined waste as substances and materials or objects which are disposed off according to the provision of a national law. Basically, wastes can exist in three different states-gaseous, liquid and solid. The people are more sensitive to solid waste than to the others. This is because solid wastes have the potential of accumulating and physically insulting the environment.

In the past, the advance effects of human activities were spread over large expense of land and sea. With the measure increase in pollution in recent times and the growth of cities and rapid industrialization, waste discharge have multiplies concentrated at a few model points.

Solid wastes are unwanted materials that cannot flow directly into steams or rise immediately in the air. They are non-liquid, non-gaseous residues of manufacturing, construction, cooking, recreation, agriculture and other activities that use and then discard materials.

They include glasses, bottles, outdated newspapers, carton, plastic, bottles, abandoned automobiles and automobiles parts, discarded cooking utensils, wraps, dead animals et cet era.

Effective solid waste management is achievable only when socio-economic factors are integrated into solid waste management studies. This approach would, according to Hudson and Marks (1977), make it possible to predict not only the expenditure pattern of a household and how much waste would be generated by each particular item consumed, but also the qualities of wastes generated by household. The first note worthy attempt at studying this problem based on this approach was made by Boyd and Hawkins (1971) With limited success, it would be argued that this approach may make it possible to transform the data generated into an input a national solid waste generation projection since that household is the basic wait of consumption and waste generation. Projection of this nature would assist urban environmental planner to better and rationally tackle this problem of waste urban areas. In addition, waste management agencies may use the results of such studies as an instrument for improving or initiating innovations in waste management practices.

It is the realization of the need to highlight the socio-economic aspects of wastes generation and management and their implication for solid wastes managements that provided a case for the present study of Zaria city area of Kaduna state.

1.1 Background of the Study

Improper waste management leads to pollution and subsequently degradation of the environment. It also adds substances that affect the environment, which because of their nature and quantity constitute a menace to the health and well being of the individuals, the society and the environment as a whole. The Environmental Act of the United Kingdom defines waste as any substance or object which the holder discards or intends to discard (Freeman, 1990).

The available infrastructure for absorbing wastes generated by urban dwellers in Nigeria is grossly inadequate, consequently uncontrolled proliferation of solid wastes dumps is a common feature of most Nigerian cities. These solid wastes appears in various sizes. For example, they could be small, medium, or large depending on the number of households that the dumps serve. In most cases, these dumps are located at the backyards of the dwelling units, roadsides, gutters, streams, abandoned buildings and so on.

Most solid waste dumps are usually invaded by scavenging animals which scatter the wastes to make them breeding grounds for disease vector such as rats and flies. Besides direct contamination of water bodies by these waste, leachartes from decomposing and purifying solid wastes percolate into soil and nearby water sources which could cause disease to humans when consumed. This is particularly the case of un-collected solid wastes which find their way either back to the neighborhoods or into open river channels which become blocked, thus creating favorable breeding grounds for mosquitoes and in some cases block drainage ways, causing floods.

For solid wastes to be effectively managed to ensure the acceptable level of environmental quality required for sustainable growth and development in the urban settings, developing or applying accurate methods of estimating the amount of waste generated and disposed constitute a fertile area of research.

Such methods require accurate information on the types and quantities of solid wastes management, generated by households the socio economic profiles of the industrial waste management systems and mechanisms used by the management and the waste disposal strategies.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Industrial waste generation increases due to increase in population and domestic activities. The cost of maintaining the environmental quality also increases as government now have much more wastes to dispose.

Industrial waste management and practice is amongst the problems affecting Benin City. Despite the setting up of Edo State Environmental Protection Agency (EEPA), the situation has remain largely characterized by indiscriminate dumping of wastes, such as food waste, paper, polythene, scrap mutals et cet era, in virtually everything every part of of the area and have constituted problems like heap waste which can cause road/rail blockage, air pollution, open air burning, leach ate which has adversely affected the general aesthetic nature of the environment. This problem also causes some health related problems due to the incidence of improper waste management practices such as cholera, typhoid, malaria and diahroea for solid wastes to be effectively managed to incur the acceptable level of environment in the urban settings developing or applying accurate methods of estimating the amounts of waste generated and disposed constitute a fertile area of research.

Such methods require accurate information on the types and quantities of solid waste generated by Industrial waste management systems mechanisms used by the Industrial and the knowledge, the information required for proper Industrial waste generation, management and disposal in Edo city is locking. The research questions predicating the study are:

  1. What quantities of each types of waste are generated by the Industry in Edo city.
  2. What quantities of each types of waste are generated by the Industry?
  3. What are the major socio-economic characteristics of the Industry?
  4. What major Industry chores generate these wastes?
  5. What are the solid wastes management strategies?
  6. In what ways do the Industry characteristics influence these solid waste generation and management strategies?
  7. Are these influence uniform or do they differ from Industry to Industry or from one study area to another.

1.3 Aim

The aim of this research is to examine the types of analysis of Industrial waste management practices with a view of indentify the most appropriation method for Edo City.

1.4 Objectives

The aim of the research will be achieved through the following objectives;

  1. To identify the types of waste generated
  2. To identify the management practices being adopted by Industrial in the area
  3. To identify the hazards of solid waste to the in habitats and environment of Edo city.
  4. To recommend appropriate measure to comb indiscrimination dumping of solid waste.

1.5 Justification

The world is becoming increasingly urbanized. The outbreak of diseases and the associated environmental problems are increasing in frequency and magnitude. However, government at the local, state and federal levels with non-governmental agencies have shared little concern to the issue of improper household waste management in the study area. The research therefore, intends to suggest a better waste management practice in the study area.

In the study area, much solid wastes are being generated by the households on daily basis. The waste is usually left uncleared for about two weeks before the waste are reluctantly rumpled into gutters or at the designated sites. The Industrial waste management use various methods in during this. These ranges from drums and buckets to refuse bin with lid or without lid and packed by boys using wheel barrows to empty it.

This methods seen not to be affective, this is due to the fact that the refuse/ wastes smell in the compound and eventually leads to outbreak of disease such as diarrhea, cholera et cet era.

This work shall therefore suggest a better practice of waste management in the study area.

This will go along way to eliminate the effects of late evacuation of waste, either from the compounds or at the designated points.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation.

5.1 Introduction

The analysis of the data set collected for this study was carried out at the level of

  1. Tabulation and summarization of solid waste sensation, management and disposal at the household level in an area, and the defining characteristics of the household and
  2. Statistical tests of hypothesis on the topic of study.

The present chapter discusses the results, draws conclusions from the discussions and suggest areas of the subject that offer opportunities for further investigation

5.2 Summary of Major Finding

One of the major problems of Nigeria cities, particularly the slums, is that of solid waste generation and management. The micro-unit of waste generation in any human settlement is the household. The solid wastes generation and management is influenced by the existing socio-economic and demographic factors in households.

A review of the relevant literature revealed that the rate of solid waste generation is on the increase in most Nigeria cities with little or no attention given to its management.

Using questionnaire approach, data were collected on the socio economic and demographic characteristic of the households, chores and activities that generate solid waste, types of solid wastes generated and its management strategies and problems.

Since this research is aimed at effective household waste management practice in the study area and from the available data collected and analysed in Chapter Four concerning the socio demographic profile from respondents, household waste generation and management by respondent and also the awareness on waste management in the study area.

The study has found out that wastes are stored in containers that have no lid, in drums, polythene bags and buckets (table 4.3.3) this also depends on the awareness of the occupants or generators (table 4.4.1) for household waste management in the study area. In some household that have large number of inhabitants (table 4.2.1) there are no storage facilities (table 4.2.6).

5.3 Conclusion

The study have provided empirical findings on household waste management practices in the study area, which is replicable of the current practices in Nigerian cities that include the use of dustbins, buckets, plastics, bags and other containers.

Therefore, household waste management should keep pace in addressing the growth in household waste volumes due to population increase and people’s attitudes towards waste in our cities. Based on the findings, it is conclusively hoped that it is possible to increase the quality of our environment in Nigeria and indeed Zaria city by adopting the most rational and operational policy or practices on household waste management. The policy should be enough to reflect the dynamic nature of Nigerian town as Zaria city in Kaduna state.

5.4 Recommendation

  1. There is need for government to partner with non-governmental organization [NGO], community and private sector to manage waste in the study area. Residents should be encourage and learn how to start combustion and incineration of waste to reduce the volume of household waste through the local government and private sectors. This can convert water to stream which can in turn be converted by electricity.
  2. Government should provide, upgrade and maintain all the necessary infrastructural facilities and agencies responsible for household waste evacuation in Zaria city. Adequate and efficient transportation is required to safety evacuate the enormous household waste generated to the final disposal sites.
  3. The state government should provide household waste management equipment and vehicles, guarantee loans for waste management authorities,final management such as the construction of sanitary landfills and purchase of incinerators for recycling plats.
  4. The federal government through its agencies such as the national Enviromental standard regulatory and enforcement A gency [NESREA], Ministry of environmental etc, era should provide national policy guideline and standards for household waste management, support capacity building through programs prepare by the ministry of works and housing, prepare master plan for key Nigerian cities on waste management, support programs of environmental education nationwide.
  5. Also funds can be sourced from multilateral agencies such as the united Nations Environmental Program,[UNEP] , united Nation Development program[UNDP] et cet era for specific aspects of waste management.
  6. Waste to wealth practices should also be encouraged in the study area. This would actually reduce the amount of waste that would be practically available. Also these can be achieved by the following;

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