Analysis Of Factors Responsible For Low Productivity Of The Nigerian Workers (A Case Study Of Power Holding Company Enugu Zonal Office)

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Analysis Of Factors Responsible For Low Productivity Of The Nigerian Workers (A Case Study Of Power Holding Company Enugu Zonal Office)


Branch (1975;12) was of the view that productivity means the continuing improvement of the firm management performance in the use of resources and though the operations it is conducted.

However the purpose of this work highlights those factors responsible for low productivity among Nigerian workers. The research tends to focus on those means that will be applied to get workers committed to tier work using effective national tool to enhance and increase productivity level of the public organization “power holding company of Nigeria” as the study. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources, the analysis of the research brought out a population size used to determine the basis for the information gathered and analyzed.

The use of percentage help to further the test of the data analyzed. The findings of the research observed by the help of questionnaires and interviews embarked upon as the factors responsible for the low productivity of Nigerian workers.

Chapter One


Background of the Study

The issue of low productivity of Nigeria workers has in recent years been a matter of great concern to the nation. The rate at which productivity grows is influenced by two things: –

(i) The rate of society’s demand and the rate of inflation.

Increased productivity is very vital for the health of the country because it will help to improve the conditions of the environment, enhance security and improve the standard and quality of life of the citizens. This is why David Ricardo in his study of population said that food needs to grow at a geometrical rate in order to meet the demand of the growing population. This emphasizes the need for increased productivity.

YusufT.M. (1962:50) was of the view that productivity can be defined as the ratio between output and all the resources used in production i.e. capital, labour, raw materials etc. the most efficient use of all available resources. With these definitions; One may ask why is the Nigeria worker inherently characterized by low-productivity in spite of all government’s efforts to improve the economy and the ever increasing need for improved productivity? The answer to this disturbing question is vital and will be answered and discussed in this study.

Increasing productivity is a way of increasing the ability of people to do what they want, to do as well as achieving a higher standard of living for all suffering from low income and in boosting the prosperity of the overall Nigeria economy.

Statement of the Problem

Research has been carried out in Nigeria; regrettably not much has been done in the way of solving the problem facing the Nigeria workers.

This has been detrimental to the increase of productivity which will contribute to the development of nation like Nigeria. In order to increase productivity among the workers in Nigeria with the help of PHCN as a guide the following bottle neck were observed.

  1. The fear of Job security among workers.
  2. The workers should be assumed of their jobs.
  3. The motivational tool and incentives were not properly provided to the workers that will make them to put in their best.
  4. The job evaluation system has been carried out in an unfair manner Lack of programmes provision for developing staff made many junior staff undertake personal training at the detriment of the employers.

The Objectives of the Study

The objective or purpose of the stud is to discover the Following:

  1. To closely look at those factors responsible for low productivity.
  2. To review the current operating standard that will be of great help in the task of increasing productivity.
  3. To verify what should be done to increase the overall interest of the workers to enhance productivity.
  4. To find out the ways to ensure commitment to work in order to increase productivity.
  5. To investigate how effective the motivational method already applied has promoted productivity.

Research Question

To carry out the research effectively, a number of related

Questions covering the productivity of workers in PHCN have been raised.

The following questions were used to acquire the necessary information on the study.

  1. What factors were responsible for the low productivity of the workers?
  2. What will encourage a worker to work diligently and put in his best at work?
  3. What types of work environment will help to facilitates a worker in carrying his duties.
  4. Does management style of leadership affects workers productivity level?
  5. What additional incentives will the management apply to increase productivity?


The research gave much consideration to the problems associated with low productivity among workers in the public and private organization where productivity level can be measured.

The study intends to cover a public sector which is National Electricity power Authority.

Significance of the Study

The result of research will help to address those problems that militate against low productivity of workers in the public and private sector of the economy.

The research also will provide management the needed background in theory and practice for the implementation of the policies as well as coordinating, organising and controlling of the affairs of the public sector.

He will also help the PHCN management in dealing with the productivity problems.

Limitation of the Study

The research work is limited by the amount of the materials such as text. Therefore, going into detail will involve getting data from all of them and this will not be an easy job considering the limitation resource (i.e money, effort and time) available. Other limitation apart from the general problem include financial aspects.

Chapter Five

Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation.


Many factors are responsible for low-productivity of Nigerian workers in the private sector. The data that were collected for this study through the use of questionnaire and oral interview and consultation of texts have revealed certain facts.
Such facts are analyzed bellowed: –

  1. Poor management
  2. Lack of production goal
  3. Non- motivation of workers and lack of incentives
  4. Lack of harmony between management and workers.
  5. Technology and acquisition of raw materials
  6. Constant change of work force
  7. Constant and close supervision
  8. Break down of machine and equipments idle time and state of technology.

The founder of Houston based America productivity centre believes that one of eh biggest impediment to productivity growth lies in management lap. He asserts that management productivity improvement strategies in favour of such goals as increasing market share. There are still too many mangers that are talking but not doing anything in the work place. Their neglect is still widespread.

A saying also goes like this, we have seen the enemy and he is us. Many managers have not yet accepted and put into practice the theme that management involves managing work operations. The neglect of any of these three legs on management stool and result in more problems.

Nothing detracts productivity as changing the work force from time to time. Any new worker will have to master the skill and also perfect in his job.

The production department of power holding company of Nigeria, Enugu makes use of casual workers; they are usually employed for few weeks or months depending on the situation of things. This lowers productivity much as fresh workers have to adapt before their performance reach expectation.

Goal is what one wishes to achieve in aim, lack of productivity goals lower productivity. Any manager that does not know his work is bound to mess- up. This is because he do not have any measure to check if he reach achieved what he desired.

There is nothing that hinders productivity close supervision. The data from our questionnaire revealed that supervisors supervision constantly and closely. This fear in workers and such productivity suffers.

Breakdown of machines, tools and equipment was also found out to hind productivity. The workers stay idle when any machine used for production breakdown or is not functioning properly.

Any organization where the management and workers do not have a good rapport between them, their productivity is affected. Lack of harmony therefore, causes low-productivity in Nigeria workers. Technology is the systematic application of knowledge to practical task in the industry. Any business organization that is not ye advanced in technology suffers low-productivity.

Lack of incentive and motivation of workers also affects productivity. It kills the mind to work. some of the workers has this to say, “the most depressing moment is whenever they feel that they have done much and will be praised by their supervisors but only to be told that they did not work up to expectation”. Naturally they get tired and discouraged. The next thing that follows is to work grudgingly and productivity level will be affected.


As productivity is the lifeblood of our economy and key to high standard of living. Productivity growth is important for the well being of future generation.

It is only by productivity that the real national wealth of a country can increase.


Now that some of the most pressing problems affecting the productivity of Nigeria workers have been identified and analyzed, an attempt to recommend solutions to those problems can be made. Any problem correctly identified is almost solved.

In view of the problems facing machines and equipments, it can be solved through new equipment and new job design. People are extremely important. In most recent reports on how to improve productivity, a major theme is the importance of always respecting people. People receive less attention than they should. Using gimmicks to show concern are not tolerated in productive firms.

One management estimates that on the average workers are productive only 55% of the time but 30% is lost through scheduling problems, unclear assignments, improve staffing and poor discipline.

Productivity improvement does not just happen competent, hardworking and knowledgeable manager makes it happen.

Father of personnel management (Robert Owen) when he was a manager in textile firm in Scotland; their worker were regarded inert instrument, he improved working condition in the factory, raised the minimum working age of children, reduced hours of work for employees, provided meals for employees at the factories, set up stores to sell necessities to employee: His philosophy was that good management pays dividends to the employees and is essential part of every management job. Then to improve productivity, the management must handle the organization well.

Productivity also needs to be measured in order to compare performance. All programmes of production improvement must be planned, organized and controlled.

Supervisors should stop constant and close supervision all the time. They should make the workers feel that they are mature enough to perform their duties to the workers.

People may leave half an hour early on the first day in each month to go for a family matter. If there is a good reason behind it, be sympathetic to such request provided the work is still done effectively and on time. It helps to make the people concerned contented in their work and tie them more firmly to the company. You cannot begin to understand people until you know their interest. This shows that good rapport between the management and employees increases productivity.

Organizations should try as much as possible to lower the rate of labour turnover.

Practice they say makes perfect. Any worker who have acquired skilled and perfection through long stay in the company is found to perform better than a new worker. Therefore management should lower the rate of labour turnover to help solve this problem low-productivity.

Increased productivity demands that there should be unity between workers and their fellow workers and also between workers and management.

This makes the workers to work as one and work towards the achievement of the organization’s targets.

There is an old adage that if you do not know where you are going, there is no way to there. Goals are necessary; it is natural for a person to seek goals. It provides a vehicle for channeling time and effort. The exercise of setting organizational and productivity goals forces individuals to spend time thinking seriously about their jobs and deciding how better to accomplish the work. Therefore, it is necessary that organization should set out their productivity goal before they even embark on production and the goals must be realistic, specific, comprehensive and meaningful.

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