An Analysis Of Factors Responsible For Low Productivity Of Employees In Government Parastatals
In the course of this research work, productivity is taken to mean the relationship between the quantity of good produced to the quantity of resources used. A more fruitful way to understand productivity is to consider it a process. Thus Brech (1975), was of the view that productivity its action can be loosely thought of as the continuing improvement of the firms management performance in the use of resources and through the operation it is conducting.
However, for the purpose of this research work the researcher highlights those factors responsible for low productivity among the Nigerian workers. The researcher tends to focus on those mean that will be applied to get workers committed to their work using effective motivational tools to enhance an increase in the productivity level of the Nigerian workers while focusing on the public sectors organization, NEPA, Enugu Zonal Office as the study scope. If the recommendation, findings are implemented, it will go a long way in helping the employers of labhour especially NEPA to motivate, encourage her employee for greater productivity.
1.1 Background of the Study
Productivity in public organization as well as in the private sector is simply the relationship between inputs and output. Inputs are basically resources such as labour, materials and capital. Outputs are such accomplishments as work done, products distributed or services rendered. Thu in Nigeria, workers have been experiencing certain problem that has been hindering their productivity level which has adversely affected Gross domestic product.
The government is trying to see that productivity maintains an impressive level created the ministry of Labour, Employment and Productivity, national productivity center etc. in order to help alleviate the problem of Nigeria workers.
In view of these, one may genuinely ask, why is the Nigeria workers inherently characterized by low productivity in spite of the government efforts to improve productivity?
The answer to this disturbing question is difficult but vital and will be discussed extensively as we proceed into the study. Briefly, we take a short historical background of NEPA which is a service organization in the public sector and researcher decided to choose it as a sample to know the factors responsible for low productivity of employees in government parastatals.
NEPA – the history of our present day NEPA would be in complete if the old public work department of government which in 1876 installed the first Generating Set in Lagos is not mentioned.
In 1895, the preliminary investigation and planning were carried out by the Public Works Department (PWD) in Lagos at a cost of N3,206,000 and it was under the government of Southern Nigeria in 1896 that the sum of N12,000 was allocated for the former location of NEPA Headquarter in Lagos. Mr. T. Poke was the first Chief Electrical Engineer of this establishment which was known as the Lagos Electricity supply.
Consequently, in 1929, a meter section was established to deal with metering of various consumers. In the establishment of these bodies there was duplicity of function by the Federal Government. Both agencies were involved in generating and transmitting electricity one sold to the other which then sell to the public. The Federal Government decided to merge the two bodies this was done during the budget speech of the then, Head of Military Government, Major General Yakubu Gowon in 1972, he declared that in the interest of affording the nation a well coordinating system of electricity supply, the ECN and the NDA should merge into a body to be known as National Electric Power authority (NEPA). Thus by Decree No. 24 of 1972, NEPA was established.
Factors Responsible for Low Productivity in NEPA
Decree No. 24 of 1972, which established NEPA proclaimed that “it shall be the duty of the authority to develop and maintain an efficient, co-ordinate and economical system of electricity supply for all parts of the Federation or as the authority may direct”. With this, the organization was established to render services which is in line with aiding management in achieving its objectives and fulfilling its policies. But there has been certain factors that has posed as problems hindering the provision of adequate service to consumers of electricity supply. This problem can be sub-divided into two major headings, internal and external factors.
The internal factors are those problems that are contributed by the staff of the organization within their working environment and also those spelt out to staff by management. They are as follows:
- Lack of incentives schemes and fringe benefits.
- Environmental factors.
- Inadequate manpower utilization and training
- Lack of good management practices.
- Inadequate motivation
- Policies in the organization concerning disciplinary measures, promotion etc.
These are faced with workers in the organization depriving them of the ability to meet up to their customers expectation in service rendering. We now look into the other problem that are externally forge against the workers effective supply of service they are:
- Low gas pressure and low water level in the running of the thermal and hydro power station respectively.
- Indiscriminate bush burning.
- Illegal connections.
- Theft and vandalization of NEPA equipment by unscrupulous persons.
- Road construction workers damaging NEPA underground cables.
- Careless and reckless motorists running in NEPA installations, like transformers. Sub-stations and even electric poles.
- Inadequate fund for the rehabilitation of old and worn out equipments, or the procurement of new the need arises.
These were spelt out as what is affecting workers in their bid to carry out their work effectively, thereby weighing down productivity increase in their organization.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Studies has been carried out in Nigeria regrettably, not much has been done in the way of solving the problem facing Nigeria workers which has been detrimental on increased productivity that will in no small way contribute to the development of a developing nation like Nigeria.
Therefore, this research is aimed at treating those problem that are particularly facing workers in public organization ranging from the junior staff to management staff.
In order to foster increased productivity among workers in Nigeria with the help of the study carried out in the National Electric power Authority as a guide, will in no small way enable us to find solutions to the following problems stated below.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The objective of this study is to discover the following:
- What ways to be applied to ensure workers commitment to work in order to foster increased productivity.
- To investigate how effective the motivational methods, if any has played any role in the bid to increase productivity of workers.
- What should be done to increase the overall interest of workers to enhance productivity.
- To closely look at those factors responsible for low productivity of workers.
- To review the current operating standards of management and suggest if possible any other standard that will be of great help in the task of stepping up productivity.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
- Ho: Motivation does not have an effect on employees’ productivity in government parastatals
- Hi: Motivation has an effect on employees’ productivity in government parastatals
- Ho: Staff training has no effect on staff productivity
- Hi: Staff training has an effect on staff productivity
1.5 Significance of the Study
The result of this research will help to adjust these problems that militates against productivity of workers in the public sector of the economy and thus help to improve the image of the course.
The research will provide solution to low productivity problem to aid increase productivity level of workers which is considered the highest objective of managers of organization. The research will as well provide for management the needed sound background in theory, practice for implementing organizing and controlling of the affairs of the public sector.
It also will help NEPA Management in dealing with its productivity problems and serve as research material (secondary data) to future works that could be related to the study.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study is primary concerned with the factors responsible for low productivity of employees in government parastatals. This study work covers Enugu Zonal office. The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Increased efficiency and the rate at which goods are produced.
Things required or needed for a purpose.
Careless or not strict in discipline or morals.
Mastery and utilization of manufacturing methods and industrial arts.
The area of the economy concerned with the government.
Series of numbers with a constant ratio between a successful quantities of the numbers which increase by a common multiplier or decrease by a common division.
System for the management and use of resources.
The fabrication of a physical object through the use of labour, materials, money and equipment.
Etiquette applying to rank or status, correct procedure.
Pay or reward for services rendered
Causes or reason for the actions of a person, reflection of a person’s desire to fulfill certain needs.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain a critical analysis of factors responsible for low productivity of employees in government parastatals.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations are made, which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefitin addressing the challenges of low productivity of employees.
This study aimed at having a critical analysis of factors responsible for low productivity of employees in government parastatals. Four objectives were raised. These objectives include: What ways to be applied to ensure workers commitment to work in order to foster increased productivity, to investigate how effective the motivational methods, if any has played any role in the bid to increase productivity of workers, what should be done to increase the overall interest of workers to enhance productivity? to closely look at those factors responsible for low productivity of workers, to review the current operating standards of management and suggest if possible any other standard that will be of great help in the task of stepping up productivity.
Based on the above findings pertaining to the objectives of the study the following conclusions are drawn.
It appears that, just as private-sector employees, workers in state government respond productively to effective supervision, open communications, elimination of bureaucracy, a sense of achievement on the job, teamwork, and rewards and recognition.
Management attention to these identified areas will likely lead to improvements in overall productivity in the state work setting. The broad concept of effective leadership retains its prominence as the primary factor influencing productivity.
It appears that, just as private-sector employees, workers in government respond productively to effective supervision, open communications, elimination of bureaucracy, a sense of achievement on the job, teamwork, and rewards and recognition. Management attention to these identified areas will likely lead to improvements in overall productivity in the state work set-ting. The broad concept of effective leadership retains its prominence as the primary factor influencing productivity.
The findings of the study revealed that most of the respondents believed that motivation and productivity are related. In this direction, the study showed that it is motivation that makes workers to be more productive, and enhances good working relations between workers and management. The study alsorevealed that higher productivity could be achieved through adequate motivation of workers, and that motivation increases the morale of workers.
From the study, it was noted that motivation is very relevant in the management of public organizations. The study in this direction revealed that workers tend to work harmoniously with management when adequately motivated, that motivation increases the level of productivity and that adequate motivation reduces organizational conflicts.
It was also observed from the study that motivation serves as a management tool for increasing the productivity of workers in an organization. To this end, the study revealed that motivation helps management to reward industrious employees, and helps management to achieve efficiency in the entire work force. The study also revealed that motivation makes workers enjoy the dividends from their organization and at the same time encourages good labour-management relations.
Pertinent amongst all was the agreement by most of the respondents that there are management problems that causes inefficiency and low productivity of workers in the organization. The study revealed some of the problems to include: lack of experience among superiors, favouritism among themanagement cadre, poor managerial know-how and management indifference of workers’ plight.
Based on the findings, the researchers were inclined to make the following recommendations:
- The management of the organization should not relent in motivating the workers should they aspire to deal with those factors that cause low productivity of workers.
- Efforts should be made to ensure that all allowances and necessary fringe benefits are paid to the workers. This is to ensure that their morale is made to be high at all times, and also encourage them to be more productive. By so doing, the organization would have eliminated another major cause of low productivity by public service workers.
- Those at the helm of affairs (i.e. management) in the organization should ensure that there is the existence of cordial relationship between them and the employees. This will not only make them to work harmoniously, but enhance the existence of an atmosphere devoid of rancour in the organization.
- The workers in the organization must be encouraged to make their contributions towards the achievement of organizational objectives. This is essential because, it has been observed that in some organizations, the workers (especially the junior workers) were always side-lined when issues or decisions affecting their organizations are being taken. They should therefore be encouraged to participate in decision-making and in running the affairs of the company.
- Since motivation was observed as an important tool for increasing the productivity of the workers in an organization, the management should consider it a matter of company policy to find and adopt the best means or technique of motivation and ensure that it is used at any point in time in the organization.
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