An Analysis Of The Domestic Water Demand And Supply

Project and Seminar Material for Geography

An Analysis Of The Domestic Water Demand And Supply


This study is on assessment of the domestic water demand and supply. The total population for the study is 200 residents of Ilori metropolis, Kwara state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up civil servants, businessmen, youths and students were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Water is essential to life and its supply, consumption and spatial distribution are closely associated with economic growth and the development of society. Apart from air, water is indispensable to life it is a foundation for human prosperity because adequate and high quality water supplies provide a basis for the growth and development of human social, economic and culture of people (Ward, 1975, Young, 2006). The importance of water to man cannot be overemphasized, it holds the most important benefit to man‟s sustenance beside shelter, food and clothing (Ajadi, 1996) According to Amin and Mahmud, (2011) it is recognized all over the world that water is a vital resource to human existence and that is a major factor in commanding the progress of civilization. Water is essential in sustaining quality of life on earth, the sustainability of socially sensitive goods such as water depends on effective and efficient use of available water resources. Amin and Mahmud, (2011) also reported that the extensive use of water has increased globally and the efficacy of supply side measure is questionable owing to drastic increase in population, technological advancement and economic growth; the demand for water supplies is continuously increasing, numerous researchers have emphasized on water demand management rather than the supply side management. The water demand study in relation to water supply enables us to estimate how much the increase in demand for water supplies. Water demand is the quantity that the treatment plant produce in order to meet all water needs in the community. Water demand includes water delivered to the system to meet the need of consumers, water supply for fire fighting and system flushing. On the other hand water supply refers to system for the collection, transmission, treatment, storage and distribution of water Admassu M. (1996). The term “domestic water demand” according to Amin (2007), is usually taken to mean the amount of water required for various domestic uses. Domestic water use varies according to the living standards of the consumers in urban and rural areas. The use of water for domestic purpose may be subsidized in drinking, food preparation and cooking washing cloths and utensils, house cleaning and polishing vegetable gardening, livestock watering and other uses. According to Adedayo and Ifabiyi (1999), access to safe and adequate potable water supply is a basic human right. They reported that domestic water supply and demand is not uniform in different parts of Ilorin metropolis and varies significantly base on locations, climate change, house characteristics and socio-economic variables. Indeed, residential water demand is often found to be a positive function of the number of individuals in the family, the size of the house, the nature of water – using appliances and household income. Also they reported that domestic water demand is increasing rapidly while the options for new development of water resources are limited in Ilorin municipal, the infrastructure is in poor shape, underfunding by the government and low revenue collection over the decades has weakened the capacity of government to find, build and maintain infrastructure.

According to WHO/UNICEF (2000) 1.1 billion people lack access to improved water supply. In the same vein, the data released by the Nigeria Bureau of Statistics in 2006 confirmed that only 51.4% of Nigerian have access to safe water with only 43.4% having access to all year round supply. According to Fabiyi and Ahmed (2011), one of the most important problems of urbanization across the world is that of water supply, because of its role in natural health and economic development. They reported that an important aspect of urban water supply is the understanding of household water demand at the level of household is complex phenomenon which varies on the basis of socio-economic factors. The study of water supply and demand in Nigeria becomes imperative in various respects. According to Fabiyi and Ahmed (2011), it was confirmed that in 1990, 71.1 million Nigerians lived in urban areas, in 1995 it increased to 96.1 million, by 2003 this percentage had gone to 136 million people, indicating a serious stress in water supply in Nigerian cities. Also, a report by Central Bank of Nigeria CBN (2004) showed that 41% and 51% of Nigerians population are children and female respectively suggesting that relatively high percentage of Nigerians are vulnerable to water borne diseases. According to Adedayo and Ifabiyi (1999) Ilorin central is a typical traditional city with mixtures of traditional rural and industrial function where water supply is erratic, inefficient, rotational and unreliable, they reported that four additional public agencies are also into water supply in the state apart from Agba and Asa Dam. UNICEF having 73 boreholes in the area, EUMBP with 22 boreholes, KWAADP with 40 boreholes and DFFRI with about 404 shallow and deep wells in the traditional part of the city. In addition, they reported that pipe borne water runs in few days of the week and many of the inhabitants have to walk great distances before they get to the nearest water points in Ilorin. According to Oyebode (1991), 75% of the respondents walked 400 – 800 meters from their residence to the nearest water points. Analysis of numbers of days with running taps revealed that 60.9% of the respondents have water twice a week, 11% three times a week, while only 0.9% has water on daily basis. As reported by Adedayo and Ifabiyi (1991), analysis of the amount of water supplied and amount demanded suggested that Ilorin experienced water deficit as much as over 1,000,000 liters per capital day per annum. According to Sule (2000) about half of the population of the Ilorin metropolis lacks access to safe and portable water supply. On the contrary, water supply by delivery agent and its contamination level due to poor sanitation is always disastrous in terms of ill health, thereby undermining their productive time which in the long run could lead to reduction in income and increase in disease outbreak and increase in poverty.

According to Annad (2007), competition for water has resulted in the collapse of water base ecological systems hence decline river flows and large scale ground water depletion. This is leading to an increased potential for conflict within and between countries with the rural populations being the most affected. Also reported that even though the water crisis is observed as a general problem for the rural population, women bare the greatest burden because of their social gendered roles, which involve looking for and collecting water for households. Barkingham (2000), equally affirmed that water demand and allocation in the household has got a direct link with accessibility of the water supply sources. This is determined by the distance travelled to collect water. According to the WHO (2003) standards areas with access to water of more than 1000m/more than 30min uses of the total collection time pose a great threat to human health (WHO, 2003) also reported that in Amona and Rakai district of Uganda, most of the people still do not have easy access to water. This has got a negative impact on the status of women and children who are responsible of collecting water. This is because they always have to travel a distance of more than 1km to collect water and to carry it on their heads.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Inspite of the effort made by the government of Kwara State to expand dams in the state and additional boreholes by public agencies into the water supply there is still inadequate supply of water in Ilorin metropolis. This indicates that water issue in the metropolis deserves serious policy and research attentions. A number of studies have been carried out on water supply, demand shortage and scarcity. Richard and Arthur (1984) used a multiple regression model to study the factors which influence water consumption in Oklahoma city and Tulsa. The result indicate that average price and per capita income were predictive variables for Oklahoma city‟s water demand, while only per capita income was found to be a predictor for consumption in Tulsa. Ajadi (1996) carried out a research on availability of water and consumption pattern in Ilorin metropolis with aid of questionnaire and interview method to find out that increased in urbanization, rapid growth of population coupled with ineffective management of water resources have been leading to water crisis. Mimi and Smith 5 (2000) and Khadam (1984) employed this approach in water demand studies for Ramallah and Khartoum respectively. Both studies also found price and size of household significant. Also a study of water consumption patterns in El paso as an economic development strategy for the sustainable use of water. It was reported that regional growth in the El paso / lascrues / juraes, now exceeding two million people and growing at an estimated 2.5% per year is highly dependent on an adequate supply of drinking water. Adedayo and Ifabiyi (1999) examined the distribution of water and the role of public agencies in Ilorin, Kwara State. Using descriptive statistics, they found out that unevenness in the distribution of water is as a result of political interference in the activities of the agencies, the localities of highly placed government officer are favoured to the neglect of others. Ijaya (2000) investigated the impact of water shortage and depletion on the productive time of women in Ilorin. The author made use of structured questionnaire, informal interview and participant observation. The result of the study revealed the shortages to inadequate supply of water is due to inefficiency by delivery agent and contamination of water due to poor sanitation. Nsofor (2000) examined the effect of attitude and social-economic characteristics on water based outdoor recreation participation in Benin City using descriptive statistic data. He found out that the use of water base recreation activities is significantly affected by attitude and socio-economic characteristic of users. Sule and Okeola (2002) assessed the performance of a regional water supply management in Ilorin, Kwara State. Using both the descriptive and inferential statistics such a single percentage and correlation analysis. The result of the study revealed that increasing urbanization population and ineffective management of water resources have lead to water crisis. Kirby (2004), carried out analysis on water scarcity, he revealed that water scarcity is as a result of growth and simultaneous increase in urbanization of the global population threatens to exhaust existing fresh water and the increased in consumer‟s demand for amenities such as home dish water and swimming pools. It is a known fact therefore, that the study of demand and supply 6 for domestic water has turned into a global phenomenon and indeed a critical policy issue receiving some recognition not only from developed nation but by authorities of developing countries. Fleming (2004) discussed various methods of projecting water demands using historical water demand data and population. Annual water demand and population data from 1996 through 2003 were obtained and reviewed. The demand analysis performed was used to determine a projected water demand for the years 2025 and 2055 based on the methods used by Vanasse Hangen Bruslin Inc. (VHB) in the 1997 demand analysis. The methodology utilized by VHB included four district approaches. The first approach looks at historic trends in raw water volumes and projects these trends into the future. The other three approaches break down total demand into a series of district components and project demand for each component in to the future using each of these methods, the demand projection for both 2055 and 2025 the gross projected demand for 2055 is 19.59 million gallon per day and for 2025 is 15.26. Mylopoulos and Theodossion (2004) applied a cubic functional form of an econometric model to study a residential water demand which allows the use of different price elasticity for different levels of water demand. The data used for the econometric analysis were obtained through a survey of consumers in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, panel estimation methods were then employed to estimate model parameters. The results showed that a cubic form of the demand equation can provide appropriate estimates of price elasticities for different “consumption groups” of residential customers. According to the study conducted by Ahmed and Smith (1987) in Bangladesh, water consumption per person per day for drinking, kitchen (cooking and utensil washing), bathing (bathing and washing cloths), sanitary and other purposes were 2litre, 9litre, 20litre and 8litre respectively. Solley (2000) found out in his study that structural changes affected supply and demand for domestic water due to federal laws controlling water pollution, technological changes in processes that use water as an input (including cooling towers and a movement away from once through cooling) and increase recycling of water. The agricultural sector improved the delivery of 7 water for irrigation and this sector lessened its reliance on ground water because of the increased costs of pumped water. Schleich and Hillenbrand (2007) studied the impact of economic, environmental and social determinants for the average per capita demand for water and sewage in about 600 water supply areas in Germany using econometric analyzes prices, income, household size, the effects of population age, the share of wells and rainfall and temperature during the summer months on water demand. The result suggests that the response of residential water demand in Germany is rather inelastic. Also found out that household size, the share of wells and summer rainfall has a negative impact on water demand. Mulwafu (2002) examines the status of water demand management in Malawi in genta and in the Lake Chilva catchment in particular. Finding indicate that, while water demand management is highly advocated in the urban and peri-urban areas and very few aspects of water demand management practiced in the rural areas

1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To analyse sources of water for domestic use
  2. To assess factors affecting water demand and supply
  3. To examine the relationship between domestic water demand and supply

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. H0: there are no factors affecting water demand and supply
    H1: there are factors affecting water demand and supply
  2. H02: there is no relationship between domestic water demand and supply
    H2: there is relationship between domestic water demand and supply

1.5 Significance of the Study

Water is one of those resources that people take for granted until there is shortage of it or it becomes unsuitable for domestic uses. Water is a limited resource and there is more demand for it owing to increase in population in Ilorin central. For instance, Ilorin and its environs are extending at alarming rate but, instead of supply and distribution of domestic water to improve, water problems is worsening day by day and effort made by the government to expand Asa dam and Agba Dam in Kwara state capital yielded no positive result. The problems of busted and rusted pipes are hindrance to the distribution to places. This is why there is need for close monitoring and examination of demand and supply for domestic water for the purpose of spatial planning.

1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers an analysis of the domestic water demand and supply. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain an analysis of the domestic water demand and supply

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of the domestic water demand and supply

5.2 Summary

This study was on an analysis of the domestic water demand and supply. Three objectives were raised which included: To analyse sources of water for domestic use, to assess factors affecting water demand and supply, to examine the relationship between domestic water demand and supply. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 residents of Ilori metropolis, Kwara state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up civil servants, businessmen, youths and students were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

5.3 Conclusion

A number of studies have been carried out on water resources such as impact of water shortage and depletion on the productive time of women in Ilorin metropolis Ijaya (2000) and distribution of water and the role of public agencies in Ilorin. Adedayo and Ifabiyi (1999). This study however analyzed the Domestic Water Demand and Supply in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State with emphasis on Ilorin Central. The study therefore, found that the study area depends mostly on pipe borne water. The percentage of respondents that source water through tap is higher that other water sources. The study also found that bursting of pipe had been the strongest factor influencing water demand in the study area base on the respondent view. While inadequate supply of electricity is the strongest factor hindering the supply of water as stated by staff of Water Board. The study further found that, there exist very high positive linear relationship between the household water demand and water supplied by the Kwara State Water Board. From the study, pipe borne water supply in the study area is inadequate to meet the demand of households. In view of these therefore, there is a need for improvement in the quantity of water supply in Ilorin metropolis.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made:

  1. The water board management should be carrying out constant repair, that is reparing of busted pipes around the metropolis.
  2. There should be constant monitoring of pipe line so as to be able to repair damaged pipes, this could be achieved by going round to check the water distribution.
  3. The government should endeavor to come to water board aid by proper funding so as to purchase the material needed. i.e special allocation of fund should be make available to the water board so as to improve their service.
  4. The water board should change their attitude of bias in distributing water to households not to favour Government Residential Areas at the expense of the masses in the town.
  5. There should be concerted efforts by water corporation and household to avoid water wastage, this can be achieved by public enlightenment through the mass media and the customers also should endeavor to report cases that can cause failure in water distribution.

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