Analysis Of Domestic Solid Waste Management Strategies
Solid waste management has become the greatest problem facing many urban and semi-urban areas in Nigeria. The management of solid wastes in recent time has become a very big challenge. The problem of waste generation, handling and disposal has reached a disturbing level in Nigerian urban centers. The study analyzed domestic solid waste management strategies in Tunga, Chanchaga Local Government, Niger State, Nigeria. This was achieved through characterizing the types of domestic solid wastes generated in the study area, examining the domestic solid waste management strategies employed in the study area, identifying the key players in domestic solid waste management in the study area, examining the frequency of waste generated and waste disposed and ascertaining the effectiveness of the domestic solid waste management strategies employed in the study area.
The primary data used in this study was obtained by direct field observations, questionnaire administration, oral interviews, images and photos of the study area. 327 out of 2040 households were sampled. The research questions were answered using tables of frequencies and percentages, bar and pie charts, Chi Square and Kruskal Wallis tests. The results showed that the kinds of domestic solid wastes generated in the study area were mainly organic, paper, plastic, old and rusted metals and textile wastes.
The domestic solid waste management strategies in place were burning, open dumping and burying, with open dumping being the most common domestic solid waste management strategy practiced in the study area (about 72%). The key players involved in the management of solid wastes were the government and individual households. The daily generation of waste (about 74%) exceeded the daily disposal of wastes (about 49%) in the study area. 63% of the respondents reported that burning of domestic solid waste is effective, 84% reported that burying domestic solid wastes is effective while 14% reported that open dumping of domestic solid wastes is effective.
The Chi Square analysis showed a significant difference between the frequency of wastes generated and waste disposed in the study area with an alpha value of 0.01, while the Kruskal Wallis H test showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of the domestic solid waste management strategies in the study area (α=0.646). The findings of this study showed that the methods of waste management adopted in the study area do not conform to sustainable waste management practices.
This implies that much attention has not been given to domestic solid waste management in the study area. The study thus recommended Public Enlightenment and Education on issues of waste management and a better public awareness strategy on the subject matter, Increase in Waste Collection Frequency and the adoption of composting as a method of waste management since majority of the domestic solid waste generated is organic in nature.
1.1 Background To The Study
Waste management is a global environmental challenging issue that is severe especially in developing countries where increased urbanization, poor planning and lack of adequate resources contribute to the poor state of Municipal Solid waste management (Mwanthi et al, 1997). Proper management of solid waste has been established to be critical to the health and well being of urban residents (World Bank, 2013).
According to the Federal Ministry of Environment waste is any damaged or useless material produced during or left over from human activities. The United Kingdom Environmental protection Board (1990), defines waste as any substance, a scrap material or an effluent or other unwanted surplus substance arising from the application of any process.
Rushton (2010), sees waste from a different view, according to him, one person‟s waste could be another person‟s valuable material, due to changing technologies, availability and cost of input materials, the demand and need to use recovered waste is changing; waste can therefore be defined as something that nobody wants at a particular point in time and needs to be disposed of. USEPA (2006) observed that this majority of substances are municipal solid waste which includes: paper, vegetable matter, plastic, metal textiles, rubber and glass
Aliyu (2010) classified wastes into three basic types; solid, liquid and gaseous which could be biodegradable, semi biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Based on land use and practices in the human environment, there are seven major sources of waste according to Ayo, Ibrahim and Mohammed, (2010), namely; domestic/ residential, commercial, agricultural, construction and demolition, mining, industrial and institutional wastes.
Industrial and domestic/residential wastes have the highest volume of wastes generated worldwide.
The Federal Ministry of Environment (2012), divided urban solid wastes into three main categories; Municipal solid wastes which comprise domestic waste, trade and commercial refuse (from schools, hospitals and clinics) and street cleansing waste; industrial wastes, consisting of refuse generated from industrial operations and by solidification of liquid and gaseous effluents and building construction wastes, which are mainly inert from demolition, excavation and construction activities. Waste management, according to Wokekoro, (2007) as cited by Uchegbu, (1998), in all its ramifications, is a planned system of effectively controlling the production, storage, collection, transportation, processing and disposal or utilization of wastes, in a sanitary, aesthetically acceptable and economical manner. It includes all administrative, financial, legal and planning functions as well as the physical aspects of waste handling.
Agbede and Ajagbe (2004), reported that improper handling storage and disposal of wastes are major causes of environmental pollution which provides breeding grounds for pathogenic organisms and encourages the spread of infectious diseases as well as the generation of green house gases from landfills, health and safety problems such as diseases, spread of insects and rodents attracted by garbage etc. Similarly, Portal, Milani, Lazzarino, Perucci and Forastiere (2009), reported that both landfills and incinerators have been associated with some reproductive and cancer outcomes (cancer of the skin and the pancreas) as well as respiratory ailments. Mwanti et al, (1997), in the same vein reported that many authors attribute the prevalence of parasites, tetanus, malaria, hook worm, cholera and diarrhea which are common in this part of the world to unsanitary conditions caused by wastes simply strewn around. Odukoya et al (2002), also noted that leachates from wastes at a dump site, are potential sources of contamination to both surface and ground water.
The sanitary state of an area is largely influenced by the waste handling practices of the residents and the measures in place for safe waste evacuation and disposal. Household solid waste is one of the most difficult sources of solid waste to manage because of its diverse range of composite materials, that are hardly sorted out prior to disposal which include garbage , plastics, paper, glass, textiles, cellophane, metals and some hazardous waste from household products such as paint, garden pesticide, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, batteries containing heavy metals and discarded wood treated with dangerous substances such as antifungal and anti termite chemicals which are hardly sorted out prior to disposal (Onu et al, 2001). The ever increasing global concern on environmental health demands that wastes be properly managed and disposed off in the most friendly and acceptable way, this is to minimize and where possible eliminate its potential harm on plants, humans, animals and natural resources. The problem of solid waste is a historical one because man‟s existence is inextricably linked to the generation of waste. The problem is becoming intractable as many cities in developing countries cannot keep pace with urbanization, pollution, and the increasingly concomitant generation of garbage due to changing life styles and consumption patterns (Momodu, et al, 2011). Globally, waste generation is on the increase and constitutes risks to both human health and the environment. According to the OCED (2002) report on municipal waste generation rate for member countries, the rate is expected to rise from 100 million tonnes annually in 1980s to approximately 168 million tonnes by 2015 and 250 million tonnes in 2030. On a global scale, calculating the amount of waste being generated presents a problem. There are a number of issues including lack of reporting by many countries and inconsistencies in the way countries report (definitions and surveying methods employed by countries vary considerably). However, despite these short comings in calculating waste generation rate statistically, a cursory observation across one‟s immediate environment will reveal a gradual and steady growth in waste size.
The ever increasing global concern on environmental health demands that wastes be properly managed and disposed off in the most friendly and acceptable way. This is to minimize and where possible eliminate its potential harm on plants, humans, animals and natural resources (Onu et al, 2001). In developing countries, there exists the disparity between rapid population growth and sanitation infrastructure. This disparity is worsened by the challenges of poor waste management practices impacting on the deteriorating ecosystems on the rapidly transforming cities which result in a catalogue of overcrowding growth in illegal settlements, uncollected household waste and the absence of water, sanitation and other basic facilities which are typical of many urban centres in Nigeria (Modebe, et al ). The quantity and rate of waste generation in cities according to Anthony (2011), is a function of the population, level of industrialization, socio-economic status of the citizens and the kind of commercial activities that take place. For instance, Sridhar and Adeoye (2003), reported than an overview of some selected developed and developing countries figure show that the United States. Canada and United Kingdom in 2002 recorded 760kg, 640kg and 560kg per capita per year respectively; but the figures for developing countries like China, India, Nigeria/ other Sub Saharan African countries in 2012 were approximated at 277kg, 237kg and 212kg per capita per year respectively.
The World Health Organization (WHO 2004) and United Nations International Children Education Fund (UNICEF 2004) joint report in August 2004 as cited by Uwaegbulam (2004), revealed that: “about 2.4 billion people will likely face the risk of needless disease and death by the target of 2015 because of bad sanitation”. The hardest hit by bad sanitation is rural poor and residents of slum areas in fast-growing cities, mostly in Africa and Asia. The report also noted that bad sanitation – decaying or non-existent sewage system and toilets- fuels the spread of diseases like cholera and basic illness like diarrhea, which kills a child every 21 seconds. The hardest hit by bad sanitation is rural poor and residents of slum areas in fast-growing cities, mostly in Africa and Asia (Uwaegbelun, 2004). The indiscriminate dumping of municipal solid waste is increasing and is compounded by a cycle of poverty, population explosion, decreasing standards of living, poor governance, and the low level of environmental awareness .Hence, these wastes are illegally disposed of onto any available space, known as Open-dumps (Izugbara and Umoh,2004).
In some developing countries, waste management agencies are not able to develop functional and sustainable waste management systems and strategies. The affected governments spend between 20-50% of their annual budget on waste management but only 20-80% of the waste is effectively managed. The main reason for this inability to manage waste is due to rapid population growth coupled with the expansion of cities, diminishing financial resources and poor urban planning. Their low priority on environmental governance has further compounded the waste management challenges associated with domestic wastes (Choguill, 1996; Achankeng, 2003; Bolaane and Ali, 2004; Pokhrel and Viraraghavan, 2005; Abdulkarim et al, 2009).
In sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Nigeria, refuse generation and its likely effects on the health, quality of the environment and the urban landscape have become burning national issues. In the same vein, waste management in Nigeria and other developing countries in Africa have remained chaotic in spite of both institutional and legal frameworks, and other interventions initiated to check the menace. Major cities in sub-Saharan Africa are grappling with mounting heaps of wastes dumped indiscriminately. These wastes emanate from household or domestic sources, markets, shopping and business centers, schools, etc. Also pathetic is open defecation on roads, street corners, water channels and, haphazard dumping of hazardous commercial and industrial wastes (Anchor and Nwafor, 2014).
The solid waste problem in Nigeria started with the rapid increase in urban growth resulting partly from the increase in population and more importantly with the increase in its immigration status, no town in Nigeria can boast of haven found a lasting solution to the problem of filthy and huge piles of solid waste, rather the problem continues to assume monstrous dimensions (Okpala, 2002). To urban and city dwellers, public hygiene starts and ends in their immediate surrounding and indeed the city would take care of itself. The situation has so deteriorated that today the problem of solid waste has become one of the nation‟s most serious environmental problem (Titus et al, 2014). The poor state of solid waste management in urban centres of developing countries is now not only an environmental problem but also a social handicap. Solid waste management in Nigeria is characterized by inefficient collection methods, insufficient coverage of the collection system and improper disposal despite huge budgets that are committed to solid waste management (Ogwueleka, 2003).
The management of solid wastes stands as the most visible environmental problem facing Nigerian cities. The problem is growing daily as a result of increasing urbanization. The solid waste problem is visible in most parts of the cities on the roads, within the neighborhoods and around residential buildings. The existing capacity for addressing the problem is low at all levels of government especially at the city level since solid waste management is the responsibility of the local government. The problem is such that the United Kingdom Department of International Development through its State and Local Government Program (SLGP) supported the Nigerian Government on reforms of solid waste management (Sanusi, 2010).
The management of solid wastes has become increasingly a difficult task locally and globally with increase in population and high consumption patterns among urban dwellers in Nigeria. In most urban cities, solid wastes are thrown away indiscriminately in any available space without care of the negative impacts it has on the environment. This poses serious threat to human health and the environment. The presence of solid wastes in a society is a great problem if not well managed due to its ability to induce environmental degradation. Improper management of solid wastes defaces the environment, spreads disease, and contaminates ground water, air and land quality. It is a major environmental concern to many nations especially the developing countries. These wastes are usually mixed together without sorting and dumped indiscriminately in the environment and as a result, poses a lot of problems for effective management of wastes which could be attributed to lack of education on the types of wastes, characteristics of wastes and methods of solid waste disposal as well as the effects of improper wastes disposal on human beings. Even when the bins for separation are provided, different categories of wastes are still lumped together and disposed at the same point. This practice results from lack of knowledge and skills needed for segregation of wastes at the source of generation and carefree attitude towards solid wastes management on the part of the citizens (Festus and Ogoegbunam, 2012).
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
The problems associated with solid waste generation and its management has been the focus of considerable environmental attention during the last quarter of the twentieth century as communities all over the world over have begun to recognize the hazards that its management entails (Onu et al, 2001). In developing countries, millions of people live without a waste management system, wide spread dumping of waste in water bodies and uncontrolled dumpsites aggravates the problem of generally low sanitation, which pose serious threat to the surrounding environment and are a health risk to the population, causing contamination of the drinking water and soil (Anthony, 2011).
Agbede and Ajagbe (2004) researched on solid waste management in Ibadan North using critical observation, questionnaires and literature review. Structured questionnaires were administered to a hundred households, thirty traders and ten industries to obtain information about solid waste management as practiced by individuals, households and market traders. Their findings revealed that no effort was made at treating different types of wastes differently for disposal purposes. The methods of waste disposal were sanitary landfill, composting and incineration. They also reported that the Solid waste management authority, the only institution responsible for the management of solid waste in the study area has not been successful in getting rid of solid waste.
Similarly, Efe (2010) examined the problem of solid waste generation and management in Ughelli using direct field measurement and questionnaire administration.
One hundred questionnaires were administered to households, schools and markets to determine the sources of waste, frequency and methods of waste disposal, those responsible for the collection of household waste and the effect of the waste in the area. The results revealed that there were no authorized dumpsites in the area and the major method of waste disposal are open dumping, land filling and dig and bury. Wastes are generated mainly by households, markets, industries, schools and other establishments. In addition, He reported that there is no solid waste management agency established by government.
Aondoakaa and Ishaya (2009) assessed people‟s perception of the impact of urban generated solid waste on the environment in Gboko, Benue State using 200 questionnaires which were administered to the inhabitants of the town. The major waste generated were household discarded materials and food remains while in the less developed areas, majority of the respondents expressed that most of the solid waste generated are from agricultural activities. They reported that most people in the study area have low knowledge of the impact of solid waste disposal on the environment and they feel they are not responsible for the management of the waste they generate. Their findings reveal that majority of the respondents that were aware that solid waste has an impact on the environment were educated.
Aliyu (2010) analyzed solid waste management in Kano metropolis, Nigeria using data gotten from government agencies, interviews and field surveys in three residential zones that are representative samples of the city, reported that about 3085 tonnes of solid waste were generated each day and the largest amount of waste generated comes from households in the study area. Also, the waste is not properly managed and thus has grave implications on the environment in the study area.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this research is to examine the domestic solid waste management strategies in place in Tunga, Niger State. This would be achieved through the following objectives which are to:
- Categorize the types of domestic solid wastes generated in the study area.
- Examine the domestic solid waste management strategies employed in the study area.
- Identify the key players in domestic solid waste management in the study area.
- Examine the frequency of waste generated and disposed in the study area.
- Ascertain the effectiveness of the domestic solid waste management strategies employed in the study area.
- Ho. There is no significant difference between the frequency of waste generated and the frequency waste disposed in the study area.
- Ho. There is no significant difference in the effectiveness of the domestic solid waste management Strategies in the study area
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study is focused on investigating the domestic solid waste management strategies in Tunga, Chanchaga Local Government Area, Niger State. It was based on the analysis of data from selected households in Tunga, the study area. According to Niger State Environmental Protection Agency, Tunga is made up of the following areas: Ntieco,
LowCost, Sauke-Kahuta, Farm Center, Aero-Park, NSTA Garage, Top Medical, Maje and Abdulsalam Garage. Thus, structured questionnaires that included information on the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, the types of domestic solid wastes generated, waste management strategies and the frequency of disposal using these strategies were drafted and administered to residents in these areas. This is because all households produce domestic solid wastes and therefore have an equal chance of being selected to provide answers to the research questions. This research took place between October, 2014 and March, 2015.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The 2006 National Population Census (NPC) reported that the population of Chanchaga Local Government Area as 201,429 1/3rd of the target population live in the study area (Niger State Planning Commission, 2011). This therefore shows that the study area is residential in nature. It is in view of this fact that the study seeks to analyze the domestic solid waste management strategies in place in Tunga. Humans produce waste in their residents or at places of work. Rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth, poor living standards in developing countries have generated refuse that pose health hazards to communities.
Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
This section gives a summary of the study carried out by the researcher, the conclusions based on the findings from the study, as well as the recommendations from the study for further research and policy development for sustainable environmental management.
5.2 Summary of Findings
The results gotten from the field show that the kinds of domestic solid wastes generated in the study area were majorly organic, paper, plastic, metal and textile wastes. About 72% of all the domestic solid waste generated in the study area were mainly organic wastes. The domestic solid waste management strategies in place were burning, open dumping and burying. Open dumping was found to be the most common domestic solid waste management strategy practiced in the study area. The key players involved in the management of solid wastes were the government and individual households and the rate of waste generation was found to exceed the rate of waste disposal in the study area because the frequency in which the residents generate domestic solid wastes was higher than the frequency in which they dispose the domestic solid wastes generated. The difference between the frequency of waste generated and the frequency of waste disposed in the study area was tested using chi square at 0.05 level of significance.The result showed a significant difference between the frequency of wastes generated and the frequency of waste disposed in the study area with an alpha value of 0.01.The response on the assessment of burning as a domestic solid waste management strategy in the study area show that 42% of the respondents feel that burning of domestic solid waste is not effective while about 38% and 25% reported that burning of domestic solid waste is effective and very effective in the study area. About 15% of the respondents feel that burying of domestic solid waste is not effective, about 56% of the respondents think that burying of domestic solid waste is effective while about 28% of the respondents think that burying of domestic solid waste is very effective. A very high percentage (about 86%) of the respondents reported that open dumping is not an effective method of managing domestic solid waste, while about 10% and 4% feel that open dumping is effective and very effective in managing domestic solid waste in the study area. In addition, Kruskal Wallis H test was used to test for a difference in the effectiveness of the domestic solid waste management strategies in the study area. The result showed that the Alpha value obtained (α= 0.646) is greater than p 0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted. This shows that there is no significant difference in the effectiveness among the domestic solid waste management strategies in the study area. It also indicated that the domestic solid waste management strategies are not effective in managing domestic solid wastes in the study area. 50% of the respondents feel that Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) is not effective in managing domestic solid waste, while the others feel that NISEPA is effective in managing domestic solid wastes in the study area. The assessment of NISEPA in the study area shows that more has to be done on waste collection and disposal.
The findings of this study showed that the method of waste management adopted in the study area does not conform to sustainable waste management strategy which results in environmental degradation and health risks. This implies that much attention has not been given to domestic solid waste management in the study area. To ensure a healthy environment, domestic solid wastes need to be properly managed to control or limit pollution; this therefore calls for urgent precautionary measures to protect the population against the adverse impacts of pollutants as well as degradation of the environment. The findings conform to those of Achankeng (2003), who reported that most African countries do not have a firm grip on sustainable method of managing solid waste; Ayo, Ibrahim and Mohammed, (2010); Agbede and Ajagbe (2004) who reported that the solid waste management agency had not been successful in the management of solid waste in Ibadan North and Aliyu (2010) who reported that wastes were not properly managed in Kano Metropolis and thus had grave implications on the environment.
Based on the findings of this study the following recommendations have been put forward.
- The first thing that needs urgent attention is in the area of public enlightenment and environmental and health education. Without grassroots environmental education and enlightenment, enforcement of environmental sanitation and waste disposal laws has a very little prospect of success. The public needs to be enlightened on proper waste generation and disposal practices including sorting of wastes. This can be achieved through enlightens campaign on TV, radio and postal to educate the citizen on it (WHO 2006). There is also a need to introduce solid waste management in the primary school curriculum so that they could be informed on the need to maintain a clean and healthy environment.
- The Niger State Ministry of Environment should review the existing laws and regulations guiding environmental sanitation and health it should also be enforced with stiffer actions in order to make them more effective. Providing legal procedures that impose restrictions on waste disposal in unauthorized places and designated land fill sites should be should be provided (Ezeah, 2006).
- More attention should be given to waste disposal management through adequate funding by providing residential neighborhoods with properly designed waste disposal points in order to protect the environment from pollution. As a short term measure, there is a need to upgrade existing facilities at major open dumpsites in the City by providing access roads, security fencing, temporary shelters and otherutilities to make for a better environment (Festus and Ogoegbunam, 2012).
- The Niger State Ministry of Environment and Information should advise the
residents and the general public to separate domestic solid wastes at source, this helps to reduce the time used in sorting at the wastes disposal and recycling site.
- The frequency of collection needs to be increased and also should be consistent by NISEPA. To do this serious efforts should be made at raising the availability ratio of vehicle through improved and prompt maintenance services. Budgetary allocation of NISEPA should be increased by the Niger State Ministry of Environment to cope with scope of the problem especially in mobilizing modern waste management facilities as well as adequate man power.
- Composting as a method of waste management should be adopted since majority of the domestic solid waste generated is organic in nature. In addition, the use of organic fertilizers should be promoted in the state and country at large.
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