Analysing The Need For Campus Radio In Nigeria Tertiary Institutions
This study focused on Analyses of the Need For Campus Radio In Nigeria Tertiary Institutions, University of Lagos and Babcock University as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the types of programmes preferred by students of University of Lagos and Babcock University; evaluating the percentage of student oriented programmes on the selected radio stations and how effective is it’s scheduling to the students and ascertaining the determinants of student preference for programmes on the select radio stations. The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 220 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students of University of Lagos and Babcock University. Results indicate that majority of the students surveyed would like to listen to entertainment programmes rather than educational programmes. Recommendations were made on the need to adopt edutainment format while presenting programmes on campus radio stations and on the need for university teachers to make use of the campus radio platform in teaching their courses.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Significance of the study
- 1.6 Scope of the study
- 1.7 Limitation of the study
- 1.8 Definition of terms
- 1.9 Organizations of the study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the study
- 3.3 Sample size determination
- 3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of data collection
- 3.7 Method of data analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the study
- 3.9 Reliability of the study
- 3.10 Ethical consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Discussion
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The personal and unique character of radio makes it one of the most appealing and universal mass media for participatory communication and development (Teer-Tomaselli& De Villiers, 1998, p.147). Various researches aver that radio has the capacity to reach large audiences, both young and old, including those in remote, underdeveloped and impoverished areas of the developing world.
According to Bosch (2007), in the absence of other forms of media such as television and newspapers, radio has proven to be a powerful and vital means of entertainment and communication that guarantees community involvement in the communication process. Further researches show that radio is renowned for providing communities with up-to-date local and international information in their own languages accompanied by various music genres that are compatible with diverse cultural inclinations (Mmusi, 2002, p.3; National Community Radio Forum, 1993, p.10).
The development of digital radio and its capacity to integrate or network with various Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), through convergence, has arguably placed radio as the world’s most successful ICT to date that reaches millions of listeners everyday (National Community Radio Forum, 1993, p6). While the traditional functions of national radio, especially Public Broadcasting Service, cannot be underestimated, community radio serves as a “niche” of the media landscape that serves as a primary source of reliable information for the entire population (Dunaway, 2002, p.4). As such, the sector has continued to provide news and information relevant to the needs of community members in the form of a medium which empowers them politically, socially and economically, through locally produced and oriented media content (Wigston, 2001; Fraser & Estrada, 2001). This is evident in the kind of programming that reflects people’s needs with regard to education, information, and entertainment to all language and cultural groups in the country (Mmusi, 2002;Teer-Tomaselli, 1995).
Although radio is not a new phenomenon, private ownership, control of programming, content and operation is relatively a recent phenomenon. It has been gaining strength throughout the world in recent years most especially in developing countries. As a result, private FM and community radio has attracted the attention of many international development organizations as an optimal resource to be developed in the struggle for democracy, the fight against disease, and the preservation of local language and culture (Blackson, 2005).
Furthermore, radio is scholarly proven to be the perfect medium for mass communication. If we compare radio to other mass media, it’s consistently ranks as the most popular means of information dissemination, regardless of the continent. The interactive appeal of radio has distinguished it as an effective medium above other tools of mass media. What makes radio particularly appealing is its interactivity, its capacity to provoke dialogue and solicit the participation of local populations (Baran, 2003).
The debut of broadcasting in Nigeria can be traced to the introduction of the British Empire Service in Nigeria in 1932; which established its repeater station in Victoria Island Lagos where information was disseminated to major towns and cities in Nigeria through the wired wireless device called re-diffusion box (Raufu A. (2011); Opubor A., Akingbulu A. and Ojebode A. (2010). Man’s constant need for information called for the extension of the relay stations to other major cities in Nigeria like Ibadan, Kano, Enugu and Abeokuta. From here, broadcasting began to grow in leaps and bounds albeit with only radio being the source of broadcast information. It was not until twenty seven years after, before Nigeria citizens were introduced to what is today known as television with the establishment of Western Nigerian Television in 1959 by the Obafemi Awolowo led Western Government. Despite the advent of television, radio has remained a veritable source of information which cuts across age, sex, cultural, religious and educational differences etc. this has remained so because as opined by Adeosun (2005:58) quoted in Adeosun, Togunwa & Raufu A. (2011:13) :
Television is purchased by the elites and haves in the society. The newspapers and magazines are patronised by the literate audience, but radio serves all classes in the society, the rich, the poor, the average, the young and the old. The educated and rural dwellers are not exempted from programmes presented in local languages on radio.
This opinion was further corroborated thus by Oso L. (2003:45):
Apart from publications, radio is probably the most popular community media in many parts of the world. Its popularity has come from its portability and ability to transcend literacy barrier. Battery powered radio sets are easily accessible to many rural dwellers. Its signals can be received in many dispersed and scattered communities from a single location at no extra cost.
Reflecting on the early years of radio and its developmental challenges, Aspinall (1971:15) described radio as “a novelty for listeners and broadcasters alike.” He added that “there was an element of excitement and adventure about it which even today marks the best of broadcasting, “for radio” according to him, it “is essentially a fun-game no matter how serious or important the programme material.” These features of radio position it as the only medium which can be accessed easily by all and sundry; such that everyone finds a programme to be identified with on radio. According to Akintayo (2013) Radio has become a part of everyday life; and people for various reasons beyond the traditional entertainment, education and information purposes, depend on radio. Thus, that radio is an agent of social mobilisation and development is not based on value judgement (Aina S. 2003) but rather on its many visible contributions to national development through its rich programmes which come in diverse languages. Kuewumi (2009:148) commented on radio saying “imagine a world without radio; it will be like a garden without flowers and trees. Radio daily feeds us with information, teaches us and calms our nerves. If radio is well understood and its potentials realized, hardly will there be any one that will live without a radio. Many anxious moments will be healed.”
Onabajo (1999:2) while lending a voice on the persuasive power of radio, its immediacy, and the importance of radio to national development says
Within limits, radio can persuade and effectively influence large audience, thereby contributing substantially, to building of national consensus. It is a powerful instrument in the area of public enlightenment, on health issues, family planning, cultural re-awakening, business improvement and other social development issues.
Radio therefore becomes about the easiest and cheapest tool for social mobilisation and public enlightenment breaking the barrier of class and education Rantimi (2011). Radio is also a powerful developmental medium because of its ability to air programmes in people’s indigenous languages as well as foreign languages. Same programme can be packaged in different languages to meet the needs of the various segments of the audience and languages within a particular community. Kuewumi (2011) further affirms this position stating:
“There is need for broadcasters to be more realistic, in understanding the people for whom a message is intended, and then construct the message to be sent in such a way that it speaks to not just specific needs of the people but also the complex mix of the people in terms of who they are and the values they hold together with words or language that they will not mistake or misinterpret when they receive it.”
This affords radio the opportunity of reaching far more people than any other medium (like print) where messages are either published in the indigenous or foreign language. Radio programmes are not also one off programmes as there are opportunities of listening to them again through repeat broadcasts which radio is known for. When adroitly used, radio can be the most effective means of communication among the vast population of illiterate Nigerians Moemeka (2012).
It is important to note that African nay; world leaders are beginning to recognise the importance of radio in National Development. This perhaps brought about the deregulation of the broadcast industry in Nigeria in 1992. The deregulation has brought about private initiatives into the industry (which was an exclusive reserve of the government for over sixty years) thereby creating a large platform for competition, quality service delivery as well as rapid growth and development in the industry. Since the deregulation also, the number of radio stations in Nigeria has increased from “less than 30 to 137, made up of 44 federal government owned, 41 state government owned, 25 private owned and 27 campus radio stations.” Omonhinmi (2012).
Although Campus radios were licensed in Nigeria as a litmus test for the establishment of community radio; the Nigeria Broadcasting Code (NBC 2010:9.7.1.a) stipulates that campus radios emerged principally to allow for training of University students especially those in broadcasting and other related fields like engineering, information technology, creative arts, use of English and drama thereby providing opportunities for practical experience and social well-being of the campus’ community in general.
This study therefore assessed students’ perception of the use of campus radio for educational purpose. University of Lagos and Babcock University were selected for the survey.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Nigeria broadcast media industry which is Africa’s largest and the world’s fourth largest, media industry needs to strive not only in meeting with the competitiveness of the industry in the area of listenership, but strive for excellence in both qualitative and quantitative media content and programming to meet its target audience.(Simmering & Fairbairn, 2007, p.7).
In order to fully support this lofty aspiration, there is the need for the mass media to serve not only as an outlet for just information dissemination, but also for societal development, socialization of norms and values as well as agent of ethic and technological rejuvenation in the face of mounting pressure from popular culture through the media that seems to be eroding communal life and virtues around us.
Insofar as this pressure remains, the prospect of the development of effective campus community radio operations in Nigeria seem to hang in the balance and that is why a study of this nature is necessary in order to unravel motivations that exist in establishing campus radio and also to find out the challenges and prospects of established compus radios in Nigeria universities with delimitation on University of Lagos and Babcock University.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is analysing the need for campus radio in nigeria tertiary institutions. specifically, the study aims
- Examine the types of programmes preferred by students of University of Lagos and Babcock University
- Evaluate the percentage of student oriented programmes on the selected radio stations and how effective is it’s scheduling to the students
- Ascertain the determinants of student preference for programmes on the select radio stations
1.4 Research Questions
- What types of programmes are preferred by students of University of Lagos and Babcock University?
- What is the percentage of student oriented programmes on the selected radio stations and how effective is it’s scheduling to the students?
- What are the determinants of student preference for programmes on the select radio stations?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The data and information gathered in the course of this research would help the broadcast industry, media policy makers, the legislature, federal government regulatory agency in charge of broadcasting and university management/authorities to foster a more proactive, competitive and productive ways of developing community radio broadcasting in Nigerian universities. Wherever it will be established, this work would further provide information and additional literature on the nature, challenges and the prospect of campus community radio broadcast in Nigeria in particular, Africa and the rest of the developing world in general.
1.6 Scope and Limitations
This study will analyze the identified gap between the aims and objectives of establishing the University of Lagos and Babcock University campus radios and its broadcasting services, while pulling out the problem(s) inherent in the establishment and operation of campus community radio broadcasting as well as the prospect in the establishment of campus radio FM stations in Nigerian universities with special focus on University of Lagos and Babcock University.
Thus, this study will explore factors like locations, licenses regime, broadcast freedom, political and socio-cultural inhibitions to propriety of stations, technology and skills development, audience feedback as well as the socialization and participation of the campus and community in the programme and news content development and delivery for the benefit of all and sundry.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The researcher encountered problems during the course of carrying out this research; such problems were as a result of selected respondents who refused to accept and participate and also encountered difficulty in acquiring relevant materials and items. The attitude of selected subjects to fill the questionnaire to time so as not to delay the result of the research also posed a problem. However, the researcher appealed to the participants through persuasive means.
1.8 Operational Definitions
This section situates the following terms within the context of the study, and thus, provides the necessary framework within which to understand their meaning in the work.
Campus radio is a radio facility that has been assigned an FM frequency by the National Communications Authority to operate as a non-commercial radio station in a tertiary educational institution. It sometimes operates with the aim of broadcasting educational programmes or for the purpose of providing an alternative to commercial or public broadcasting. It is run by the students of a university or other educational institution.
Educational broadcasting is a communication strategy in which educational messages are intentionally incorporated into broadcast formats to meet specific needs or objectives in any human endeavour. This involves formal teaching and learning in tertiary institutions.
Audience generally, means all the potential listeners of the broadcast outputs of ATL FM and Eagle FM.
Reach is the farthest geographical area (which in the stations‟ own estimation) where their signals may be received.
Teaching is an activity performed by a more experienced and knowledgeable person with a view to helping the less experienced and knowledgeable person to learn. It involves helping others to learn to do things, to think and solve problems and to react in new ways.
Learning refers to any relatively permanent change in behaviour which occurs as a result of practice or experience. The activity that qualifies to be labelled “learning” must result from the learner‟s experience or practice and must last for a fairly long time.
1.9 Organizations of the Study
The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.
The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on Analysesof the Need For Campus Radio In Nigeria Tertiary Institutions, University of Lagos and Babcock University as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on Analyses of the Need For Campus Radio In Nigeria Tertiary Institutions, University of Lagos and Babcock University as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the types of programmes preferred by students of University of Lagos and Babcock University; evaluating the percentage of student oriented programmes on the selected radio stations and how effective is it’s scheduling to the students and ascertaining the determinants of student preference for programmes on the select radio stations.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 220 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students of University of Lagos and Babcock University.
This study sought to find out students’ perception of the need for campus radio in Nigeria tertiary institutions. It therefore determined to find out what programmes the students would prefer to listen to; and how best to redirect students’ attention to educational programmes which is believed would be beneficial to them academically, morally and otherwise.
The study found out that majority of the students would like to listen to educational programmes especially those that relate directly to their courses of study. The study also found out even though majority of the respondents believe that programmes on their campus radio stations are rich in contents, since radio is for entertainment, more current music should be played on the stations.
- Since the study found out that majority of the respondents are not familiar with the line-up of programmes on their campus stations, the study recommends that the stations should publish their programme schedules on the internet and other social media platforms used by the stations. They should also always produce trailers for both new and existing programmes.
- Campus stations should also conduct audience research at the end of every programme quarter to know programmes the audience would like to have in the programme schedule for the next quarter thereby producing more acceptable programmes laden with educational ideas and subject to fulfil the role of radio in educating its audiences.
- Campus stations should also work with the Distant Learning Coordinator of their universities to get curriculum-based educational programmes that would meet the needs of the audience requesting for programmes relating to their courses of study.
- Programmes Producers should endeavour to include decent, current and relevant music in their educational programmes; so as to enjoy more listenership. This according to Akintayo (2013) constitutes a blend of programmes that are student/community oriented which naturally will catch their fancy and of course is better if presented by one of them in their local dialect. The beauty of the language and slangs used among their peers make the programmes presented better understood than if some fancy presenter did it in fancy ‘Queens English’. Advice and counsels given on programmes will be better understood, imbibed and practiced. In other words, they should make use of edutainment style of programming.
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