An Appraisal Of Socio-Political Development Of Local Government In Imo State
The Nigeria Local Government system which is the third level of government was evolved with a view to bringing government to the grassroots. This is based on view that it is only when government is brought to the grass root level the development will be total and complete. This study took a critical look on the Nigeria local government system which has over the years been an instrument of grass root development.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Approval page
- Abstract v
- Table of contents
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the study
- 1.3 Objectives of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Significance of the study
- 1.6 Scope of the study
- 1.7 Limitations of the study
- 1.8 Definition of terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Other functions of the study local government sources of revenues
- 2.3 Function of local government council in local government performance
- 2.4 Welfare of a local government council
- 2.5 Social activities to rural development
- 2.6 Steps for effective rural development
- 2.7 Local governments as an agent of community development
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research design
- 3.3 Sources/Methods of data collection
- 3.4 Population and sample size
- 3.5 Sample techniques
- 3.6 validity and reliability of measuring instrument
- 3.7 Method of data analysis
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Presentation of data
- 4.3 Analysis of data
- 4.4 Inter-related of results
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary of findings
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendations
1.1 Background Of Study
Nigeria is a vast area in terms of land mass, and development of this vast areas resolve round the government, federal, state and local government. It is difficult for only federal and state government to develop this vast areas, only and this responsibility of even development in the country gave rise to the creation of local government as the third tier of government of grass root designed to serve as an instrument for rural development.
According to the political Beareau (2009), the local government is widely acknowledged as a viable instrument for rural transformation and for the delivery of social services to the people. Local government is an organ of a particular place or district with a view to making the impact of governance be it, political or military felt at the grass root level, Nworji L.O. (2007:2).
According to A.E.C. Ogunna (1993), local government primary concern is to bring government to the communities so that the local people can participate fully in the process of government in order to provide essential local services and this accelerate the pace of social, economic and political development.
And for development to penetrate to the rural areas additional local government such as Ezinihitte Mbaise local government was created to achieve this purpose in 2011. This motive has been short lined and handicapped, in other words, a logical question that readily comes to the mind is; why is this so? A simple administration explanation for this is the fact that every society that is still under-going rural development is still in a state of dynamics; no society going through these process or reforms is ever static things change from time to time, norms, attitudes, culture and work ethics in general.
Thus, the entire problems of performance, productivity and satisfaction from rural development have turned out to be more complex than was hitherto taught of an envisaged.
Therefore, there is a clear-cut need for studies geared towards the discovery of factors; which can be invoked to motivate rural development in Nigeria in order to enhance performance and boast productivity.
1.2 Statement Of The Problems
In recent times and other interested organization have made various source of finance available to cooperative in the rural area because they see such organization as one of major paths to the socio-economics. Development plan of 080-075, the sum total of 184.22 million was earmarked for the running of cooperatives in Nigeria. But in spite of all the enormous funds being spent on this cooperative (whom is supposed to use the funds for the rural upliftment of their members). A list of problems still exists and it is the purpose of this research and it is the purpose of this research work to identify and find solutions to them such problems are:
- Lack of cooperative among the rural people.
- Problems literacy as most of the rural people are for development.
- The land tenure system here the rural people prefer to cultivate on their lands than donate them for development activities.
- Fraudulent activities of the official of the cooperative activities bestowed with power of implementing development activities in these rural areas. Because of these facts that cooperative here are government organized, they have little fund to embark on project, this is due to the delay in release of funds when they contribute on their own, they raise very small amount of money.
- Lack of infrastructure like good roads, electricity, pipe borne water, hospital and schools to allow easy accessibility.
Still worn some children and youths are always not educated to unemployed. Favours on their own side has been facing a whole lot of problems, like lack of funds to purchase facing implements, lack of goods roads to transport their produce, lack of government subsidy to help them improve their farming practices, difficulty in acquiring fertilizer for enhancing their farm lands and others. It is quite obvious that since the local government is a rural area, the youths and the fathers are mostly agrarians.
Adebayo (2002:5) has earlier warned against these problems and maintains that the public services in Nigeria has failed to acquire a new corporate image to a changing world and reflecting the new complexity of tasks is called to perform to the citizens. It is was the conviction of Ogbanaya One Cin A.O Unachukwu (2000:3) that fraud was a direct consequences of the inability of the state (and its service) to provide the basic needs of its citizens and the perception of the citizens that adequate arrangements are not being made by the state to guarantee bright future.
Therefore, in view of the required role of government as the nation from the grass roots, Umunze has not from this report adopted strategies to improve rural development in Nigeria for the citizens.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The following from the objectives of this research work:
- To examine the role of public servants Umunze Orumna south government area in rural development.
- To find out the operational problems relating to public servants inability to actualize rural development.
- To find out why public servants in Orumba south government area is for believed in the race of socio-economic development.
- To determine the kind of development project to embark upon by Umunze in Orumba south and the reason for the success and failure.
- To ascertain the extent the government are assisting various communities in rural development in Nigeria.
- To find out and determine the statutory fund allocated to the Orumba South government area and the extent to which the funds improve the life of the local people.
1.4 Research Question
This work is intended to examine the research questions that hinder the effective and efficient operation of local government with reference to their roles bringing about rural development. Some of these research questions include:
- What are the efforts of the local government towards the socio-political development?
- What extent has local government gone towards performing its role in rural development?
- What are the major factors that affect the performance of local government in Nigeria?
- What are the sources of fund open to the local government meant for development projects?
- Are local governments well-informed to carryout their duties in rural and community development?
- Which functions of the local knowledge community responsibilities and participation for effective performance
1.5 Significance Of Study
The significance of the study in view of this work includes:
- To help public administration students who will prepare themselves towards accepting responsibility in the public service, personnel managers and also the Orumba South government authority and government to take proper control and managements in the efficiency to the public service at all tiers (both local and grass root levels).
- To sensitize Orumba-South government to what success and failure it is making in the face to socio-economic development.
- To help the government known the steps or further strategies to adopt in solving the problems of local government.
- To also enable us to know how far the new strategies taken by the present administration has succeed in achieving its aims and objectives.
- To introduce self help project in the Orumba South government in order to improve their socio-economic activities.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This research work was carried out to find out what roles or local authorities are playing in rural development. Onumba South government of Imo State was chosen as a case study, which could be used to generalize or interpose what is obtainable in Nigeria considering the facility of government administration in Nigeria.
This resulted from the unalloyed sympathy or soft spot of the writer at the deplorable condition of our rural community through there is divergent government areas in size in Nigeria but they are all facing the same problems of abject poverty, hunger, unemployment, illiteracy, malnutrition and others.
More so, it is expected that the study will give an insight in the development efforts of the government and problems facing it. Interviews were carried out in most of the communities to find out the feelings and the opinions of the rural people concerning the public servants and the performance of Orumba south government area, but then the study covers all the communities in the L.G.A general information was collected from the local government offices on specific amenities and infrastructures, or developmental projects were chosen.
They include rural water development or supply, rural electricity and infrastructures. Under rural infrastructure, the construction of roads and health centers picked and researeched on as to find out how much the Orumba south government has done in there area of provision since the inception of the government in socio-economic development.
1.7 Limitations Of The Study
The researcher encountered problems of having related books to the topic of study since it is an area people have not aversively written about especially on the area of theoretical foundation of the study. More still, the researcher also encountered problems during the period of primary data collection and most of the government workers they were not chanced ad others especially the department heads regarded it as an attempt to reveal some secrets of the organization which they turned private.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
The terms defined are based on the context of this research work.
Charles Kemjika (2005:4) sees development as “an all encompassing multi-dimension process involving man in his political, economic, socio-cultural and psychological relations among others, in his effort to master and subjugate native and national forces of his environment to ensure improved living”. From the above, we see that development is of various dimensions and could be discoursed or studies from the multi-facet field of specialization or human endeavour.
This means engaging in activities that will promote economic growth. This can be ensured by the rate of increase and decline of a countries gross national product (GNP) and gross domestic products (GNP).
This refers the existence of the local government by which they created and to which they own their continued existence. They are sometimes referred to as infra-sovereign nation used administrative to reduce congestion of work of the center.
This refers to the grand total of the money or income received from all sources out which expenses incurred are defrayed. Revenue can either be internal or external. They are internal when local governments generate such revenue through its own effort e.g taxes, tenement rate, fines, fees, licensing and municipal undertakings. They are external when local government receives allocations and grants from state and federal government.
This includes all expenses costs and outlay undertaken by the local government in meetings the social economic needs of the population and the running of the local government. They are either capital or revenue expenditure where business of the local government e.g salary, rents, electrical bills, etc. while capital expenditure refers to expenditure or expenses borne in acquiring fixed asset or the addition of value to an existing asset e.g purchase of cars, land and improvement.
It is the process of security and incasing the resources and revenue available to the local government in the fulfillment of its aims and objectives.
Management: The application of skill and control in the treatment of resources and revenue generation to achieve optimum returnees.
The relation of independent sources of fiancé for the local government within the federal system. It involves the issue of the inter-governmental financial relation in the form of adjustment of fiscal imbalance among the different level of the government.
Means only land with or without building which is held or occupied as a distinct or separate holding or tenancy and or separate holding or tenancy and any wharf or piers in water.
Tenement Rate Or Property Rate:
This is a rate levied on the occupation of land and building a rating area, it (owner) not the land is rate able but the occupier rate able in respects of land or building he occupiers owns.
Revenue: Income of government from different source.
Is a compulsory payment to government by individuals, corporate bodies or on consumption of goods and services.
A government official who collect taxes.
Essential amenities: This means the basic amenities needed to improve the standard of living of the people, such as good roads, health services, electricity, etc.
This can be seen as the improvement on the human situation that is improvement in the adaptive capacity of the human being and of the human community especially in harmony and emotional security.
Public servants service:
Public service can be defined as a person holding public office in a service of the state which serves as a need of the public e.g a public transport system which Pertauis to the community as a whole. It can also be seen as a group of people or section of a community characterized by some common interest. Public service is a service where federal state or government has an interest or their presence is felt.
This is an authorized or legitimate body of people or group of people in society who makes and enforces law on behalf of the people.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
The continued emphasis on the improvement and reformation of the local government system in Nigeria lies in the fact that local government is conceived as the fulcrum of rural development. This contention is more reinforced in the various definitions of local government. the 1976 guidelines for local government reforms in Nigeria sees local government as government at local level exercised through representative councils established by law to exercise specific powers within defined areas.
These powers should give the councils substantial controls over local affairs as well as the staff institutional and financial powers to institute and direct the provision of services and to determine and implement project so as to compliment the activities of the state and federal government in the areas.
5.2 Summary Of Findings
The research work tends to investigate, analyze, examine and determine that the local in Nigeria enhances grass root participation by the following question were raise:
- Does modern government lead to community development?
- What are the major constraints on government in embarking on developmental projects?
- To what extent has the existence of government areas brought political participation to the community areas?
- Do community dwellers in Umunze Orumba south local government lack adequate awareness of community development due to their lack of adequate political education?
- Does government provide indirect support for individual and other corporate entities to engage in project that leads to social and economic development?
In attempt to provide answers to the above questions those research objectives that were:
- To show those modern governments are created for the general happiness of rural dwellers.
- To show that government even development embark on government development projects are constraints by lean resources.
- To identify and understand the various mechanisms that tend to encourage active participation, in initiating, planning, executing and evaluating of rural development in Nigeria projects.
- To ascertain the level of south towards the development of Umunze Orumba south local government.
- To show that government in provision of market, primary health care.
Government is designed to as a variable instrument for rapid and even development of local communities. It will amount to understatement and more ignorance if one should conclude that Umunze Orumba south local government area from 2007 – 2012 has not experienced a socio-economic change since its inception. From all the study, government and community development is considered meaningful.
From the finding made, therefore, recommended thus:
- That government activities should not be to centralize to the extent that the communities around will be cut of from government activities.
- All the communities around should be carried along to the scheme of affairs so that there can be even and consistent development should be closely supervised by higher authorities to ensure that its activities are in line with the objectives for its creation.
- They should be adequately funded especially those with enormous responsibility to its size and population. Moreover, government should be carried out from those one that are very large in order to reduce the administration burden associated with the size.
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