An Appraisal Of Socio-Political Development Of Local Government In Imo State From 2007 – 2012
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To God Almighty and my family especially my father who believe that every man must work hard, educated and economically independent.
I genuinely wish to express my deep sincere gratitude, submission and reverence to God Almighty who made it possible for me to come to a good end in the presentation of this work.
I am also deeply indebted to many people who made this work to be done. I will not fail to mention my project supervisor, Mrs. Chidinma Amadi who made sure that this work came true.
Thanks also goes to my parents who never looked away in sponsoring me. Finally, I will not fail to thank my sisters and brothers who make sure that I never lack anything as long as education is concern.
The Nigeria Local Government system which is the third level of government was evolved with a view to bringing government to the grassroots. This is based on view that it is only when government is brought to the grass root level the development will be total and complete. This study took a critical look on the Nigeria local government system which has over the years been an instrument of grass root development.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of contents vi
- 1.0 Introduction 1
- 1.1 Background of the study 1
- 1.2 Statement of the study 4
- 1.3 Objectives of the study 7
- 1.4 Research questions 8
- 1.5 Significance of the study 10
- 1.6 Scope of the study 11
- 1.7 Limitations of the study 13
- 1.8 Definition of terms 14
- 2.0 Literature review 20
- 2.1 Introduction 20
- 2.2 Other functions of the study local government sources of revenues 22
- 2.3 Function of local government council in local government performance 26
- 2.4 Welfare of a local government council 29
- 2.5 Social activities to rural development 32
- 2.6 Steps for effective rural development 35
- 2.7 Local governments as an agent of community development 37
- References 43
- 3.0 Research design and methodology 45
- 3.1 Introduction 45
- 3.2 Research design 46
- 3.3 Sources/Methods of data collection 46
- 3.4 Population and sample size 48
- 3.5 Sample techniques 49
- 3.6 validity and reliability of measuring instrument 51
- 3.7 Method of data analysis 52
- 4.0 Presentation and analysis of data 53
- 4.1 Introduction 53
- 4.2 Presentation of data 53
- 4.3 Analysis of data 54
- 4.4 Inter-related of results 59
- 5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 62
- 5.1 Introduction 62
- 5.2 Summary of findings 63
- 5.3 Conclusion 65
- 5.4 Recommendations 66
- References 68
1.1 Background Of Study
Nigeria is a vast area in terms of land mass, and development of this vast areas resolve round the government, federal, state and local government. It is difficult for only federal and state government to develop this vast areas, only and this responsibility of even development in the country gave rise to the creation of local government as the third tier of government of grass root designed to serve as an instrument for rural development.
According to the political Beareau (2009), the local government is widely acknowledged as a viable instrument for rural transformation and for the delivery of social services to the people. Local government is an organ of a particular place or district with a view to making the impact of governance be it, political or military felt at the grass root level, Nworji L.O. (2007:2).
According to A.E.C. Ogunna (1993), local government primary concern is to bring government to the communities so that the local people can participate fully in the process of government in order to provide essential local services and this accelerate the pace of social, economic and political development.
And for development to penetrate to the rural areas additional local government such as Ezinihitte Mbaise local government was created to achieve this purpose in 2011. This motive has been short lined and handicapped, in other words, a logical question that readily comes to the mind is; why is this so? A simple administration explanation for this is the fact that every society that is still under-going rural development is still in a state of dynamics; no society going through these process or reforms is ever static things change from time to time, norms, attitudes, culture and work ethics in general.
Thus, the entire problems of performance, productivity and satisfaction from rural development have turned out to be more complex than was hitherto taught of an envisaged.
Therefore, there is a clear-cut need for studies geared towards the discovery of factors; which can be invoked to motivate rural development in Nigeria in order to enhance performance and boast productivity.
1.2 Statement Of The Problems
In recent times and other interested organization have made various source of finance available to cooperative in the rural area because they see such organization as one of major paths to the socio-economics. Development plan of 080-075, the sum total of 184.22 million was earmarked for the running of cooperatives in Nigeria. But in spite of all the enormous funds being spent on this cooperative (whom is supposed to use the funds for the rural upliftment of their members). A list of problems still exists and it is the purpose of this research and it is the purpose of this research work to identify and find solutions to them such problems are:
- Lack of cooperative among the rural people.
- Problems literacy as most of the rural people are for development.
- The land tenure system here the rural people prefer to cultivate on their lands than donate them for development activities.
- Fraudulent activities of the official of the cooperative activities bestowed with power of implementing development activities in these rural areas. Because of these facts that cooperative here are government organized, they have little fund to embark on project, this is due to the delay in release of funds when they contribute on their own, they raise very small amount of money.
- Lack of infrastructure like good roads, electricity, pipe borne water, hospital and schools to allow easy accessibility.
Still worn some children and youths are always not educated to unemployed. Favours on their own side has been facing a whole lot of problems, like lack of funds to purchase facing implements, lack of goods roads to transport their produce, lack of government subsidy to help them improve their farming practices, difficulty in acquiring fertilizer for enhancing their farm lands and others. It is quite obvious that since the local government is a rural area, the youths and the fathers are mostly agrarians.
Adebayo (2002:5) has earlier warned against these problems and maintains that the public services in Nigeria has failed to acquire a new corporate image to a changing world and reflecting the new complexity of tasks is called to perform to the citizens. It is was the conviction of Ogbanaya One Cin A.O Unachukwu (2000:3) that fraud was a direct consequences of the inability of the state (and its service) to provide the basic needs of its citizens and the perception of the citizens that adequate arrangements are not being made by the state to guarantee bright future.
Therefore, in view of the required role of government as the nation from the grass roots, Umunze has not from this report adopted strategies to improve rural development in Nigeria for the citizens.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The following from the objectives of this research work:
- To examine the role of public servants Umunze Orumna south government area in rural development.
- To find out the operational problems relating to public servants inability to actualize rural development.
- To find out why public servants in Orumba south government area is for believed in the race of socio-economic development.
- To determine the kind of development project to embark upon by Umunze in Orumba south and the reason for the success and failure.
- To ascertain the extent the government are assisting various communities in rural development in Nigeria.
- To find out and determine the statutory fund allocated to the Orumba South government area and the extent to which the funds improve the life of the local people.
1.4 Research Question
This work is intended to examine the research questions that hinder the effective and efficient operation of local government with reference to their roles bringing about rural development. Some of these research questions include:
- What are the efforts of the local government towards the socio-political development?
- What extent has local government gone towards performing its role in rural development?
- What are the major factors that affect the performance of local government in Nigeria?
- What are the sources of fund open to the local government meant for development projects?
- Are local governments well-informed to carryout their duties in rural and community development?
- Which functions of the local knowledge community responsibilities and participation for effective performance
1.5 Significance Of Study
The significance of the study in view of this work includes:
- To help public administration students who will prepare themselves towards accepting responsibility in the public service, personnel managers and also the Orumba South government authority and government to take proper control and managements in the efficiency to the public service at all tiers (both local and grass root levels).
- To sensitize Orumba-South government to what success and failure it is making in the face to socio-economic development.
- To help the government known the steps or further strategies to adopt in solving the problems of local government.
- To also enable us to know how far the new strategies taken by the present administration has succeed in achieving its aims and objectives.
- To introduce self help project in the Orumba South government in order to improve their socio-economic activities.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This research work was carried out to find out what roles or local authorities are playing in rural development. Onumba South government of Imo State was chosen as a case study, which could be used to generalize or interpose what is obtainable in Nigeria considering the facility of government administration in Nigeria.
This resulted from the unalloyed sympathy or soft spot of the writer at the deplorable condition of our rural community through there is divergent government areas in size in Nigeria but they are all facing the same problems of abject poverty, hunger, unemployment, illiteracy, malnutrition and others.
More so, it is expected that the study will give an insight in the development efforts of the government and problems facing it. Interviews were carried out in most of the communities to find out the feelings and the opinions of the rural people concerning the public servants and the performance of Orumba south government area, but then the study covers all the communities in the L.G.A general information was collected from the local government offices on specific amenities and infrastructures, or developmental projects were chosen.
They include rural water development or supply, rural electricity and infrastructures. Under rural infrastructure, the construction of roads and health centers picked and researeched on as to find out how much the Orumba south government has done in there area of provision since the inception of the government in socio-economic development.
1.7 Limitations Of The Study
The researcher encountered problems of having related books to the topic of study since it is an area people have not aversively written about especially on the area of theoretical foundation of the study. More still, the researcher also encountered problems during the period of primary data collection and most of the government workers they were not chanced ad others especially the department heads regarded it as an attempt to reveal some secrets of the organization which they turned private.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
The terms defined are based on the context of this research work.
Charles Kemjika (2005:4) sees development as “an all encompassing multi-dimension process involving man in his political, economic, socio-cultural and psychological relations among others, in his effort to master and subjugate native and national forces of his environment to ensure improved living”. From the above, we see that development is of various dimensions and could be discoursed or studies from the multi-facet field of specialization or human endeavour.
This means engaging in activities that will promote economic growth. This can be ensured by the rate of increase and decline of a countries gross national product (GNP) and gross domestic products (GNP).
This refers the existence of the local government by which they created and to which they own their continued existence. They are sometimes referred to as infra-sovereign nation used administrative to reduce congestion of work of the center.
This refers to the grand total of the money or income received from all sources out which expenses incurred are defrayed. Revenue can either be internal or external. They are internal when local governments generate such revenue through its own effort e.g taxes, tenement rate, fines, fees, licensing and municipal undertakings. They are external when local government receives allocations and grants from state and federal government.
This includes all expenses costs and outlay undertaken by the local government in meetings the social economic needs of the population and the running of the local government. They are either capital or revenue expenditure where business of the local government e.g salary, rents, electrical bills, etc. while capital expenditure refers to expenditure or expenses borne in acquiring fixed asset or the addition of value to an existing asset e.g purchase of cars, land and improvement.
It is the process of security and incasing the resources and revenue available to the local government in the fulfillment of its aims and objectives.
Management:The application of skill and control in the treatment of resources and revenue generation to achieve optimum returnees.
The relation of independent sources of fiancé for the local government within the federal system. It involves the issue of the inter-governmental financial relation in the form of adjustment of fiscal imbalance among the different level of the government.
Means only land with or without building which is held or occupied as a distinct or separate holding or tenancy and or separate holding or tenancy and any wharf or piers in water.
Tenement Rate Or Property Rate:
This is a rate levied on the occupation of land and building a rating area, it (owner) not the land is rate able but the occupier rate able in respects of land or building he occupiers owns.
Revenue:Income of government from different source.
Is a compulsory payment to government by individuals, corporate bodies or on consumption of goods and services.
A government official who collect taxes.
Essential amenities:This means the basic amenities needed to improve the standard of living of the people, such as good roads, health services, electricity, etc.
This can be seen as the improvement on the human situation that is improvement in the adaptive capacity of the human being and of the human community especially in harmony and emotional security.
Public servants service:
Public service can be defined as a person holding public office in a service of the state which serves as a need of the public e.g a public transport system which Pertauis to the community as a whole. It can also be seen as a group of people or section of a community characterized by some common interest. Public service is a service where federal state or government has an interest or their presence is felt.
This is an authorized or legitimate body of people or group of people in society who makes and enforces law on behalf of the people.
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How to nail it on the head during your project / seminar defence
You are through with writing that project / seminar. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.
Structure of a Seminar Paper
I feel like there is a lot of stress out there among grad students about writing seminar papers, especially when we’re told that our goal should be to make an original contribution to the field. That idea can be quite intimidating when we’re just starting out. It feels like you’ve asked us to jump off the deep end of the pool and we don’t know how to swim.
I think part of the problem is that we’re still working out how to structure seminar papers.** Each paper we write is another step closer to a successful, effective, and effective paper; however, we’re still flailing our arms (and other miscellaneous body parts) around because we’re uncertain of exactly how to go about it. I realize, of course, that there is no one right answer. However, below is my suggestion at sticking your toes in the water.
Section #1 — Introduction
Provide a little bit (or a lot) of motivation for the reader to read your entire paper. Failing that, your reader should know what the paper is going to be about by reading your introduction.
Paragraph #1 — Get some attention.
- Provide a context by citing a recent text in the field — the point that is cited may or may not be the main point of the text — it is what jumped out at you.
- Set-up broader context of what you’re going to do
Paragraph #2-?? — Define issue and the gap.
- Define issue and any key terms
- Limit scope as necessary
- Establish significance of issue
- State problem by defining the gap
- Explain how present research attempts to fill the gap
- Outline contributions (readers will see lit review for more detail.)
- End with thesis and preview organization of the rest of the paper
Section #2 — Literature Review
Give some credit where credit is due.
- Indicate the current state of the issue/problem/topic
- Define or qualify terms
- Engage sources in conversation with each other (don’t just copy in annotated bib)
Section #3 — Argument / Discussion
As stated in the Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing:wallow in those complexities!!
- Examine issue
- Argue how issue can be mitigated, mediated, or mashed
- Provide evidence and support
- Make some lively commentary along the way
Section #4 — Conclusion
We’re almost done. Don’t quit now.
- Summarize research question
- Qualify argument/discussion if you need to
- Explain where we go now
- End well
Section #5 — Works Cited
Is everything listed on the works cited?
Tips: it’s ok to use sub-headings to keep yourself organized.
Tips On How To Know What Your Supervisor Is Looking Out For In Your Project
Apparently all schools/colleges ask their undergraduates especially the final students to write their final year project before they are certified to be graduates. These projects are mostly discovery activities geared towards problems solving or basically to make new discoveries or better still have a better understanding of a problem with the aim of proffering better solutions.
With this assigned task an undergraduate will need an advisor, a counselor or a supervisor to guide and direct this activity for a desired result and a successful ending and of course, in return the supervisor have factors to look out for in a student project, so that the aim of the project writing will not be defeated.
As a final year student planning to write your final year project, there are some factors you need to consider when trying to have a good working relationship with your supervisor and you must have the below tips at your fingertips to know what your supervisor look at for in your project.
Selecting the right topic or title:
The supervisor would want to know how knowledgeable one is, in a chosen topic and how far one can go with the topic by asking one diverse questions which could be simple or a bit tough. So one thing is to choose a right topic and another thing is to be knowledgeable about the said topic.
The relevancy of the project topic to the degree course:
This is one of the important things a supervisor looks out for in a project. A final year project must have a purpose and objectives and most importantly be problem solving and must be related to the course of study. So a project topic should be relevant and interesting.
The realistic plan for the project:
A project supervisor will always look at how realistic a project topic is. Will the project aims be achieved and at the specified time. If it will outlived the specified time such topic might be dropped and a new topic adopted to run the set time and fulfill its purpose.
Quality of research materials available:
Another factor a supervisor will consider in project writing by a student is the quality of the materials available for research on the chosen project topic, can materials and information be readily available and are those materials of high standard and convincing not just bogus and fictitious analysis but materials that research has be carried out by scholars related to course of study. So a source of materials used for a project is very important and most supervisors look out for this.
The funding channels:
Almost all project writing needs a good amount of funding to achieved the desired aim, A supervisor would always want to find out how the project will be funded, so as not to have hitches when the project is on. So to have a smooth working relationship with ones project supervisor, the funding of the project must be considered and revisited from time to time. Because a supervisor will look out for this aspect too.