Alternative Sources Of Funding For Public Libraries (A Case Study Of Imo State Public Library)
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In appreciation to the love of the Almighty God. His gracious upon me during the process of making this work a reality. I will ever remain grateful to him for all his goodness upon my life.
Acquiring wisdom and knowledge is built on standing by the words of the wise. Success is always achieved by standing of efforts rendered selflessly on a pierce of work in order to make it a reality.
I acknowledge the selfless efforts and encouragement rendered towards achieving this work by my project supervisor, Mr. Anyanwu Emmanuel Uwazee
I also acknowledge all my fellow students in the department, friends and well wishers. May God Almighty bless you all.
I will not also forget my good lecturers in the department especially my (HOD) Dr. Umunna N. Opara Phd and others. I may not be able to call your names one after the other, but may the good lord be your strength and refuge.
The public library is a vital and sensitive unit in the state and so demands proper planning and organization, if it is to achieve its desire goal. Thus public library affairs are not a one man’s show. It involves the local government, individuals and the community where the library is located.
In the first instance, there is increased need for much more than the small allocation recommended. The standard should be adjusted to something much more higher a billion naira every year to the state library for efficient and effective operation of public libraries. And the imprest account of divisional libraries should be increased due to large allocation of state libraries.
The survey established that library users Iin Imo State favour the idea of partial / subsidized funding of library services.
Public libraries needs adequate resources to run their services, pay and hire personnel, provides current information, arrange, organize and monitor both human and material resources. Nigeria is a developing country and its society is not a reading society.
Nigerians do not appreciate the importance and needs of public libraries and the services it offers hence causing problems that reflect in the level of funds allocated to it by the government.
State government subventions which constitute about 80% of public libraries fund is grossly inadequate. This inadequacy is because of political instability and bad economy of the economy.
1.1 Background Of The Study
The public library is a social institution which is tied to the political and social realities of the communities where it is situated. As the name implies, this us a library that serves the public.
UNESCO (1966) sees public libraries as “Those which serve the population of the community or region free of charge or for a nominal fee”. It is a library designed to serve the generality of the people.
According to Oduagwu (2002) “Public libraries that serve the public are supported by government subvention, local rates or charges”. He went further to explain that public library is often regarded as a poor man’s university. Its client is heterogeneous devoid of race, status, rank, bias as to who would avoid if its services.
It stocks every conceivable item that add knowledge, education, research, information and cultural needs of the society. In Nigeria today, each of the 36 state Win the country including Abuja has a public library board established under the public library act as United Kingdom (UK), but here in Nigeria, library board of states is established by edit or laws made by the states legislators.
Oparaku et al (2005) defined a public library as “an institution that is set up by the government through enabling law, funded and mentioned expected to meet the educational, informational and recreational needs of its community”.
Public library funding refers to making money available for the day to day running of the library. Funding deals with making money or funds available to public libraries. Finance is the life wire of any establishment including labor, capitals and entrepreneur and information the capital here refer to finance which can be used to procure other factors of production thereby making it more important than others.
Fund is obviously the major element in every establishment. It is equally the working capital of an establishment. Public library funding generally means the various ways public libraries derive the expected funds for capital and recurrent expenses.
According to New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary (1991) public libraries is “a library usually run by a municipality from which books may be borrowed freely”.
According to Encyclopedia of librarianship (1958), it is a library “concerned with all material. Values to the individual and the community and its duty not only to meet existing demands but also to encourage and facilitate wider demands from more people.
History Of Imo State Library Board.
The Imo State Library board came out from the eastern regional board. It was later part of eastern central library. On 3rd of February, 1976, as more states were created in Nigeria, Imo state was among the newly created state. Within that period, all activities were carried out by the former eastern central state. As a result of this creation, the east central library board broke into Anambra and Imo State library boards. However, it was only in September 1976 that the indigenous Imo state in Enugu were transferred to Owerri to establish the administrative headquarters of Imo state library board. The mobility was in part because printing, binding and reprography staff were the last to move by the end of September. Prior to the movement, the assets and liabilities of the former east central state library board were shared.
The Anambra state library board retained the buildings and other fixed assets, the whole fiscal cash and information resource were shared consequently, owerri divisional library which was under completion was hurriedly finished and used as the headquarter. The new library was opened to the public on the 12th of November, 1976 by then military governor, Commander Godwin Ndubuisi Kanu. The building was constructed to accommodate 85,000 volumes.
The sum of N35,904.84 was spent on the building at that time of its opening. The building was divided into various sections, the ground floor was for children, the acquisition and cataloguing departments, the information consultancy unit, the staff reading room and the reprographic unit as well as the auditoria housing. Also was the handicap section which was opened by the military governor of Imo state commander Amadi Ibekweghi on 1st November 1989 and the exhibition which was taken over by the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA). The 1st floor contains one reference, circulation and adult lending section.
The library began its operation with a financial provision of sum of N564,837.66 for the financial year 1976/77. The sum was made up of N246,832.66 being financial inheritance from the east central state library board and N360,00 as financial addition, a sum of N500,000 was to covers its capital expenditures for the year 1977. Anambra and Imo States shared a considerable quality of new books which had not been allocated prior to the creation of the state. Other materials shared include catalogue cabinets and catalogue cards originally ordered for Owerri, library, some material filing cabinets and a few type writers.
The library started its operation with a total of 150 staff and a stock of 1,35o volumes. At present the total staff is 108 as at December 2006 and 112 as at June 2007.
1.2 Statement Of The Problems
In many public libraries, the budgetary allocation released as when due, and this in turn delays the implementation of the program of those libraries when funds has resulted in shortage relevant textbooks as currently being experienced by people and researchers who are in need of the material. There is inadequate funding of public libraries by the state government which provides about 80% of the funds required by the public libraries.
Shortage of funds has resulted in shortage of materials. In adequate provision of funds has prevented the provision of current materials needs by the staff and client in public libraries. Also poor appreciation of the service of the library by those at the helm of affairs, low societal ratings of the libraries in public libraries in Nigeria pose problems to funding of public libraries.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The objectives of this study are as follows:
- To establish the state of funding in public libraries in Nigeria.
- To find the major source of funding public libraries.
- To find alternative source of funding public libraries.
- To highlight problems associated with inadequate funding of public libraries.
- To make recommendations on how to overcome inadequate funding of public libraries.
- To determine the effect of commercialization.
1.4 Research Questions
- Should library services be commercialized?
- What type of commercialization do you prefer in your organization?
- Is there any effect of commercialization on the economy?
- How is the quality of services provided by these libraries?
- What is the major factor responsible for low quality services?
- How is your library been funded?
- Is there any relationship between funding in public libraries and increased service delivery?
- How is the quality of funding in your organization?
1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis
The will be used to obtain the reliability of the subject matter.
HO: There is no relationship between funding in public libraries and increased service delivery.
HA: There is a relationship between funding in public libraries and increased service delivery.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
This study will enable us to know the state of public libraries in Nigeria, the problems facing public libraries. It will also be of important to researcher or any other person who is interested in finding the state of public libraries in Nigeria, especially Imo State library board Owerri.
It will also help us to appreciate the public library as an agent of political, social and religious development of a community which can compel them in passing the right judgment and taking right decision that affects their lives and existence. The study as expected will be an added literature in this branch of public librarianship.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
The scope and literature of the study will enable users to know the funding of public libraries in Nigeria, especially in Imo State. This mostly designed to highlight the sources of funding public libraries towards economic development in Imo State Library board. Other areas covered include the commercialization of public libraries etc.
1.8 Limitations Of The Study
Every research work is expected to have certain limitations which fall short of the ideas which the researchers has established or organized.
In the process of carrying out this research work, certain inevitable problems were encountered which include time constraints, financial constraints, restricted access to information, that is, some relevant materials on net were not accessible only their abstracts also some people refused to fill the questionnaire.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
An amount available to a person or organization every year and plans on how it should be spent.
Things of value owned by an individual or government.
Wealth that is owned, inverted, lent or borrowed.
Activities or things done in order to make money.
Money used to run a business.
Money that has been served or has been made available for a particular purpose.
Things done in the library.
Debts own by a person or an organization.
Expenses incurred in order to generate more money.
Return On Investment
The ability to perform certain duties for the benefits of others.
Amount paid in order to continue receiving services of a company or person.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.