Africanism Theme, And Technique In Amos Tutuola’s The Palmwine Drinkard
This project work deals with a critical evaluation of Africanism in relation to theme and techniques of Amos Tutuola’s novel – THE PALMWINE DRINKARD. This study tends to examine the important of African culture and promotion of its cultural heritage which was bastardized by the colonial masters during colonization. In the course of this essay, chapter one will deals with introduction, background of the study, purpose of the study, scope and limitation, justification, methodology and authorial background. Chapter two forms the literature reviewed about past scholars’ view on Africanism, the concept of Africanism as theme, the concept of Africanism as techniques. Chapter three focuses on analysis of the novel- the palm-wine Drinkard. Chapter four encompasses summary, findings and conclusion to the whole essay. In our finding, we are able to discovered. That “Africanism especially the aspect of African culture in Tutuola’s texts enable the readers to appreciate and value their own traditions. That Africanism as a concept is capable of generating its own body of literature and attracts criticism to itself. That through the concept of Africanism, the efficacy of African culture has been proved using Tutuola’s text, the palmwine Drinkard. Also, that the writing of the palmwine drinkard has been greatly influences by oral tradition.Furthermore, it is discovered that Tutuola through the palmwine drinkard has proved that African writer are not writing in vacuum, but concentrate on Africa background
“Pan-African” unity is important in African identity politics, because the African ancestry of Afro-American community cannot be derived from an identifiable African people. Therefore, it has become necessary to minimize the differences between the various peoples of African favour of a generalized “African” heritage.
1.1 Background of the Study
The word “Africanism” connotes pan-Africanism. Pan-Africanism represents the aggregation and the projection of historical, cultural, spiritual, artistic, scientific and philosophical legacies of Africans from past times to the present. Pan-Africanism as an ethical system traces its origin. From ancient times and promotes values that are product of the African civilization and the struggles against slavery, racism, colonialism and neo-colonialism. However, Pan-Africanism is usually seen as a product of the European slave trade. Enslaved Africans of diverse origins and their descendants found themselves embedded in a system of exploitation where their African origin becomes a sign of their service status. Pan-Africanism set aside cultural differences, asserting the principality of these shared experiences to foster solidarity and resistance to exploitation.
Alongside a large number of slave insurrections, by the end of the eighteenth century political movement developed across the Americas Europe and African which sought to weld these disparate movements into a network of solidarity putting an end to these oppressions. In London, the sons of Africa were political group addressed by quotona Ottobah Lugoano in the 1791 edition of his book thoughts and sentiments on the evil of slavery. The group addressed meetings and organized letter-writing campaigns, published campaigning material and visited parliament. They wrote to figures such as Granvile sharp, William Pitt and other members of the white abolition movement, as well as king George III and the prince of Wales, the future George IV. Modern Pan-Africanism began around the beginning of the twentieth century. The African Association latter renamed the Pan-African Association, was organized by Henry Sylvester – Williams around 1887, and their first conference was held in 1900.
1.2 Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study can be seen from different perspectives. First and foremost, to see how Amos Tutuola has promoted the richness of African culture. He wants Africans to cast a favourable look at their indigenous traditions, unique cultural heritage forgetting the culture impose on them during the colonial period, secondly, the study is desirable at discussing how Africanism has been used as theme and techniques in Tutuola’s the palmwine drinkard in order to convey his message to his readers.
1.3 The Significance of the Study
This research work is significant in the literary world where it adds to the body of knowledge and making known some hidden riches of the book The Palmwine Drinkard. This work will convey why Tutuola wrote in such of manner with imaginary pictures of places which are often told in Yoruba myth. In this generation where culture and ethnics are not well regarded, this work shall carve out our culture of Africanism and enlighten all to value our culture.
Many researchers have worked on Amos Tutuola’s the Palmwine Drinkard discussing different issues such as Ajayi A. (2002) “Language and style in Amos Tutuola’s The Palm-wine Drunkard” brought out to appreciate the asteriated use of language in the book and also Baiyerohi, P. (2008) “Folklore in Amos Tutuola’s “The palm-wine Drinkard” to diverse perspectives of folklore but for the purpose of this work, we shall be using “Africanism” to analyze themes and techniques in The palmwine drinkard by Amos Tutuola.
From the foregoing, more researches have been made by scholars and students of English to analytically criticize Tutuola’s The Palm-wine Drinkard but for the authenticity of this work, we shall be exploring the richness of African culture messaged by Tutuola which from our understanding has not been worked upon before now.
1.5 Scope and Limitation
This work shall studied the concept of Africanism as portray in the palm-wine drinkard. Furthermore, we shall be examining how the concept of Africanism, its themes and techniques is been use to show the efficacy of African’s culture and tradition.
Tutuola’s the palmwineDrinkard is our primary source of information in this essay. All the concepts of Africanism used as themes and techniques shall be critically examined.
Our secondary source of information will include books consulted in the process of the study which are articles, done on the author which can be found in journals, seminars, projects.
1.7 Authorial Background
According to Parrinder (1954). Tutuola was born in the Nigerian city of Abeokuta in 1920. His parents were Christians and cocoa farmer of Yoruba race. At the age of twelve, he had began to attend the Anglican central school in his home town. His formal education lasted only five year as he had to leave school, when his father died. This made him to go to Lagos and train as a blacksmith in 1939 from 1942 to 1945; he practiced his trade for the Royal-Air force in Nigeria. After which, he then worked as a messenger for the department of labour as a store keeper for Radio Nigeria in Ibadan.
Furthermore, he married Alake and they were blessed with six children, Tutuola was not highly educated. He wrote in English language rather than his mother tongue, Yoruba language, because he wanted to reach a wider audience to which this local material may have more general interest but the English he uses in his stories is “not published or sophisticated” instead, Tutuola used English language the way it is being spoken in Nigeria by ordinary people.
Tutuola is a fascinating writer, whose works are interesting not only because their style is so vibrant but also because they reflect Africa folklore and tradition. Other books by Tutuola include, My life in the bush of Ghost (1952), Sumbi and the Satyrs of the dark jungle (1955), The Brave African thuntress (1958), herbalist of the remote Town (1981). He died at Jordan Hospital in Ibadan on June 7th, 1997.
Amos Tutuola was a recognized scholar in the world of folklore. He won some honours and awards such as: Meridian award –odu themes (1983), honorary fellow in writing of the University of Iowa USA (1983), the second prize winner Grin Zane Cavour Arnold in literature in Italy (1983). the honorary fellow of modern language Association of America (1989), the Nobel patrol of arts pan African writer association (1992), the special fellow National League of veteran journalist (1996) and the Egba merit award (post honours) 1997.
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