Advertising As A Revenue Survival Strategy For Mass Media Organization
This study on Advertising as revenue survival strategy for mass media organization Nigeria is the subject of the work. The purpose was to identify the advertising effectiveness in mass media organization as a revenue generation to media establishment. Data was collected through questionnaire. From the total population of 150 staff. The study was carried out through simple random sampling, applying Yamane formular to determine the sample size. The result was analyzed using frequency distribution table and percentage, while the hypotheses were tested. The researcher found out that there is knowledge of advertisement effectiveness in media organization which helps to boast mass media organization. The study revealed that there are problems that hinder advertising in most of the media organization but going by this set back media organizations generate enough revenue for their survival. The researcher recommended among others that Advertising should be made more persuasive, Creative and dynamic. Advertising should be made to be more product match. Conclusively, advertising is very vital in attracting customers in mass media organizations and as well design strategic policy incorporating all the variables needed for effective advertising.
1.1 Background of the Study
Nigeria Television Authority Enugu was established in the year 1960 by the Premier of an Eastern region of Nigeria Dr. Michael Okpara. It was the oldest television station in Nigeria. It was received in the thirteen states of the federation. The station has two studios and each of them equipped with video cameras and microphones, because of the tempo graph of Enugu the studio and the transmitter are not consider.
The transmitter is located about 15 kilometers away from the studio. The station transmitters on 201.75mhz video and 196.25 audio, both local and network programmes are received from the station. In the year 2003 the station was upgraded to a zonal network center. The implication of the above is that the station not only now receives both, also transmitte’s both network news and programmes. The zone covers Abia State, Akwa-Ibom state, Anambra state, Benue state, Cross-River state, Ebonyi state, Enugu state, Imo state and Rivers state. It can be said that the zone and its stations are fulfilling their primary functions of informing, educating and entertainment.
The secondary function of NTA is that it creates employment opportunities. Economic situation in Nigeria today and its attendant problems especially on the purchasing power of her citizens has greatly affected television usage.
In line with the above is the incessant arrests and sometimes close down of some media organizations in the country resulting from their beautifully designed programmes targeted at attracting viewers but found provoking by the government. The above mentioned problems in no small measure affected the smooth running of the mass media organization in Nigeria.
Therefore, towards ensuring continuity in the business, it behooves the management of the mass media organization to evolve survival strategies via diversification of activities.
A remarkable revenue survival strategy often adopted, especially in terms of returns on the business and the creation of awareness is advertising.
- Trust worthiness of the mass media organization one hand that of the sponsor on the other side.
- Prestige of the sponsor of the advertisement.
- The quality of product being advertised etc.
The above mentioned variables or factors individually cannot influence advertising effectively but rather concerted interactions of efforts of these variables. Thus positive result can only be achieved by careful implementation of these variables systematically by the mass media.
Consumers are usually exposed to hundreds and maybe even thousands of commercial messages every day. They may appear in the form of billboards, like campaign, or in the form of newspaper ads, Television advertisement, coupons, sales letters, publicity, event sponsorships, tele-marketing calls, or even e-mails. These are just a few of the many communication tools that companies and organizations use to initiate and maintain contact with their customers, clients, and prospects. one may simply refer to them as advertising. But, in fact, the correct term for these various tools is marketing communications. And advertising is just one type of marketing communications.
Today, definitions of advertising abound. Journalists, for example, might perceive it as a communication, public relations, or persuasion process; business people see it as a marketing process; economists and sociologists tend to focus on its economic, societal, or ethical significance. And some consumers might view it simply as an act to persuade them to satisfy their buying behavior. Each of these perspectives has some merit and demerit. Arens (2004) observes that Advertising is the structured and composed non personal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods, services, and ideas) by identified sponsors through various media. APCON on the other hand described advertising as a communication in the media paid for by an identifiable sponsor and directed at a target audience with the aim of transferring information about a product, service, idea or cause.‟
Majority of marketers use mass media for their marketing communications. The choice of media is dependent upon the nature of the message and the intended target audience (Etzel, Bruce J., William and Ajay, 2008). Television advertising is the best-selling and economical media ever invented. It has a potential advertising impact unmatched by any other media (Saxena, 2005). The advantage of television over the other medium is that it is perceived as a combination of audio and video features; it provides products with instant validity and prominence and offers the greatest possibility for creative advertising (Kavitha, 2006). Over a longer period of time, the Television set has become a permanent fixture in all upper and middle class households, and it is not uncommon even in the poorer society of urban areas and rural households (Shah & D’Souza, 2008). Reactions to television advertisements seem to be stronger than the reaction to print advertisements (Corlis, 1999). The advertisers find it more effective to use television rather than print media to reach consumers, partly due to low literacy rate (Ciochetto, 2004). TV advertising not only change emotions but give substantial message exerting a far reaching influence on the daily lives of people (Kotwal, N., Gupta, N. and Devi, A., 2008).
Lager products are without doubt among the products that have been given intensive and wide advertisement coverage. The products were able to arouse attention using promotional strategies.
Consumers’ behaviour is affected by both internal (individual) and external (environmental) factors or influences. The internal influences include the consumer motivation and involvement, attitudes, personality and self-concept, learning and memory, information processing on the other hand, external factors includes cultural influences, sub-cultural influences, social class influences, social group influences, family influences, personal influences, (khan, 2006). The way these influencing factors integrated within the consumer determines how that consumer will behave towards the product(s) which focal point is on the effect of peak milk television advertisement.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The research tried to look into the challenges on how Nigeria Television Authority use advertisement from their customers to generate revenue base for the country but also the advertising strategies is not influencing their viewers/customers. This research work shall examine whether there are enough revenues from it to sustain the organization or to modify the strategies if not sustainable.
It is a known fact that television advertisements use persuasive techniques to appeal to consumers‟ sense of buying. It is also evident that television advertisements have a lot of influence on human behaviour. This influence may be either positive or negative. The kind of influence depends on the kind and quality of advertisement. Since television commercials have the potential to influence human behaviour either to make them buy a product or admire it. It becomes relevant to establish the effect of such influence with reference to peak milk television advertisement in Edo state.
Furthermore, there is no gainsaying that television advertising has strong persuasive stimuli in helping to determine what we actually think about; it controls our values, attitudes and belief system, especially when weighed on constant exposure, prominence and cumulative media specific effect (Gambo, 2003: 690) If this is the case, what therefore is the effect of peak milk television advertisement on consumer’s buying behaviour in Edo State?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are
- To ascertain the attitude of consumers in Edo State towards NTA television peak milk advertisement.
- To determine the extent to which NTA television peak milk advertisement influence consumers to make buying decision.
- To examine the level of influence of NTA television peak milk advertisement on consumer buying behaviours.
1.4 Research Questions
The research questions of this study are;
- What is the attitude of consumers in Edo State towards NTA television peak milk advertisement?
- To What extent does NTA television peak milk advertisement influence consumers to make buying decision?
- What influence does NTA television peak milk advertisement have on consumer buying behaviours?
1.5 Significance of the Study
There cannot be a better time to work on survival strategy for mass media than now with growing revenue consciousness among our government. The research attempted to advertising agencies other customers; the mass media organization that want to identify those strategies that will help them in manipulating the television viewers behaviour, the mass media organization that is interested in enhancing its positioning in television house and to serve as a reference strategy to other broadcast media organization for purposes of research documentation.
The result of the study would be of immense benefit to advertisers of peak milk as it would provide a guide on planning, production and placement of television advertisements for the product.
Essentially, this study makes a significant contribution to the existing literature on the attitude of consumers towards television advertisement. The study would also be of great use to mass communication and marketing students who intend to take up similar studies.
It is also envisaged that findings from this study would assist the management of Peak Milk Nigeria Plc. to effectively promote their products in the highly competitive environment of the brewery industry in Nigeria.
1.6 The Scope of the Study
This research work shall cover the following areas
- An evaluation of mass media in Nigeria.
- Advertising as revenue survival strategy for mass media.
- Measures required by broadcast media organization to meet these challenges.
The scope of this study was limited to 300 consumers, 150 male and 150 female in order to achieve gender balance and equality. The scope covered Benin environs as it is the largest city with the largest number of local government area in Edo State. Moreover, it is the commercial nerve centre of the state with active commercial activities on a daily basis.
1.7 Limitation to the Study
The study was faced with the following constraints:
Finance was a major constraint to the smooth execution of this research. Considering the economic situation of the country during the period of the research, and the research being a student having to administer questionnaires and collect the questionnaires.
Another constraint encountered by the researcher was that of time. Considering the fact that the researcher is a student who has got many other courses to do, there was insufficient time for the researcher to give the topic under consideration the adequate attention that it deserves.
Some respondents in a bid to keep some secrets did not release some information to the researcher. Secrecy has a major constraint in research studies. This study is not an exception.
d) Poor Rate of Response:
Poor rate of responses from respondents posed another constraints to the study. the researcher made several calls and efforts on the respondents to respond to the questionnaires and many of them did not respond as anticipated.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Frequently employed terms in this study are defined within the context of usage to avoid any misinterpretation.
Act of making something deliberately known to be people through any of the channel mass of communication such as television and persuading them for positive action towards that thing.
The ability of the consumer to conclude on the purchase of a particular product.
The decision process and actions of people involved in buying and usage of products.
Activities, actions and influence of people who purchase and use goods and services to satisfy their personal or household needs or wants.
This refers to the environmental influence on the consumer. Examples include family’s social structure and culture.
Power to effect somebody’s or people’s character, belief or action through example or powerful presentation.
This connotes personal needs and motive of the consumers, his perception, the habit he had developed that influence his behaviour
The powerful, immediate or dramatic effect that something or somebody has over another thing or person.
A piece of electrical equipment with a screen on which you can watch programmes with moving pictures and sounds.
Marketing communication about product or services channeled to the public though the television usually by an identified sponsor.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations based on the findings of this study as well as for further study.
The purpose of this research was to find out the Effect of Peak Milk NTA Television Advertisement on Consumer’s Buying Behavior in Edo State. The study was anchored on the agenda setting theory of the mass media and diffusion of innovation theory, both which guided the study to relate the effect NTA Television advertisement have on consumers buying behavior.
The data were collected using questionnaire and analyzed by simple percentages. The sample constituted 150 male and 150 female (300) consumers. Thus 300 copies of the questionnaire were distributed and comprise to the respondents.
The findings of this study show that consumers have a very positive attitude towards peak milk NTA Television advertisements. The study also revealed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement influences consumer’s buying decision to a high extent. It is evident that this studies confirmed that peak milk NTA Television advertisements has a high influence on consumers, that it influences them in a way that it make them to buy the product and in place of other brand.
5.2 Summary of Findings
The answer to the research question was found on table 6. Table 6 revealed that a merger of SA and A showed that 251 out of the 300 respondent strongly that their attitude toward peak milk NTA Television advertisement was very positive. Whereas, a merger of disagree and strongly disagree indicated that only 15 respondent strongly disagreed that they have very positive attitude toward peak milk advertisement while 34 said they preferred to remain neutral.
This clearly indicates that the respondents have a very positive attitude towards peak milk NTA Television advertisement which means that the advertisement is very effective. This is in line the study of some group of researcher (Tsang, Ho, and Liang, 2004; Haghirian and Madlberger, 2005; Brackett and Carr, 2001) whose studies have shown that NTA Television advertising messages has positive influence on consumers’ attitude towards advertising.
It was found in table 6 that 166 respondent strongly agreed that their attitude towards peak milk NTA Television advertisement were very positive. 85 respondents agreed that their attitude towards peak milk NTA Television advertisement were very positive. 34 respondents were neutral as to whether their attitudes towards peak milk NTA Television advertisement were very positive. 15 responses disagreed that their attitude towards peak milk NTA Television advertisement were very positive and none of the respondent strongly disagreed that their attitude towards peak milk NTA Television advertisement were very positive.
120 respondents strongly disagreed 105 disagreed, 50 were neutral, 20 agreed and 50 strongly agreed that their attitude towards peak milk NTA Television advertisement was neutral.
60 respondents strongly disagreed, and a significant number of 195 disagreed that their attitude toward peak milk advertisement were negative and only 35 were neutral.
Only 70 respondents strongly disagreed and 200 respondent disagreed that their attitude to peak milk NTA Television advertisement were negative while only 30 were neutral.
Table 7, graphically illustrate data that displayed extent to which peak milk NTA Television advertisement influences consumer’s buying decision. It shows that 104 respondent strongly agreed that to a very high extent peak milk NTA Television advertisement influence their buying decision. 166 responses which is more than half of the total responses agreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement influences their buying decision to a high extent.
Similarly, it show that 108 respondents strongly agreed, 130 agreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement influence their buying decision to a high extent, 40 were neutral 22 disagreed while none strongly disagreed.
Also show in the table, 170 strongly disagreed, 100 disagreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement influence their buying decision to no extent. 20 were neutral, 8 agreed and 2 disagreed.
Furthermore, the table showed that 180 respondent, strongly disagreed, 70 disagreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement influence their buying decision to low extent, 50 were neutral, and none disagreed or strongly disagreed
Finally, the table shows that 250 respondents strongly disagreed, 45 disagreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement influence their buying decision to a very low extent and only 5 were neutral and none agreed or strongly disagreed
In table 8 findings shows that 86 respondents strongly agreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement does have influence on them. A significant number of 163 responses which is more than half of the total responses agreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement does have a very highly influence on them. 34v were neutral, 16 disagreed.
The table also shows that 128 respondents strongly agreed, 140 agreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement have highly influence on them, 20 were neutral 12 disagreed while none strongly disagreed.
The table again showed that 110 respondents strongly disagreed, 100 disagreed noted that peak milk NTA Television advertisement rarely have any influence on them. 27 respondents were neutral, 30 agreed and 33 strongly disagreed.
Furthermore, the table showed that 86 respondent, strongly disagreed, 80 disagreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement have low influence on them. 75 were neutral, 35 agreed and 24 strongly agreed.
Finally, the table shows that 60 and 65 strongly disagreed and disagreed respectively, 140 respondents were neutral while 35 agreed, and no respondent strongly agreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement have a very low influence on them.
Table 7 present data that proffer answer to research question 2; the table indicated that a combination of strongly agreed (104) and agreed (166) showed that 271 out of the 300 respondents strongly agreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement influence their buying decision to a high extent. Whereas 24 of the respondent decided to remain neutral while only 6 disagreed and none strongly disagreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement influences their buying decision to a high extent. It will therefore be logical to conclude that peak milk NTA Television advertisement influence on consumer’s buying decision to a high extent. This agrees with Rana (1995) study on TV advertisements which revealed that the influence of NTA Television advertisement on consumers’ social behaviour, including purchasing behaviour was the greatest.
Similarly, table 8 gave answers to research question 3. It shows that 128 respondents strongly agreed, 140 agreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement have highly influence on them, 20 were neutral 12 disagreed while none strongly disagreed. This also with the merger of strongly agreed and agreed amounting to 268 responses out of the 300 total number of respondent who agreed that peak milk NTA Television advertisement have highly influence on them.
This indicate that peak milk NTA Television advertisement have high influence on the consumer of the product. This is in contrast with the study by Source Dynamic Logic through a survey conducted in 2009 on the consumer behavior to different types of advertisements for products including NTA Television, Online and Magazines. The study revealed that advertisements have modified the consumer behaviour in such a way that they only go for brand favorability despite of ad awareness in every type of media.
The study reveals how consumers think, feel and behave towards NTA Television advertisements of peak milk. While consumers do not swallow hook, line and sinker whatever advertisements are beamed to them, they are however drawn to NTA Television advertisement appeals of peak milk advertisements, that is, they are influenced by it to a great extent more than other brands.
The study also explains that NTA Television advertisements of peak milk appeals to the people to the extent that it persuade them to make a positive buying decision.
The study shows that consumers have certain variables that influence their buying habits such as price, taste, product design and advertisement.
Out of these other variables, advertisement was considered the most influential especially with NTA Television as the most preferred medium.
- It is therefore recommended that in the advertisement of peak milk, the company should pay more attention to continuous usage of NTA Television as a medium of advertisement.
- NTA Television should be considered first before any other media of advertising as its influence is most exciting and to high extent influences the buying decision of the consumers.
- That the NTA Television advertisement of peak milk should be sustained to ensure consumer’s continuous patronage.
- The advertisement of the product should also be carried out in other medium.
- Consumers of peak milk should be occasionally be encourage by incentives in form of gift items and promo.
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies
The researcher suggest that the scope of the study as well as the methodology can be expanded through other studies such as
- The effect of peak milk NTA Television advertisement in Nigeria.
- The effect of peak milk NTA Television advertisement in other station
- The effect of peak milk NTA Television advertisement on delta radio Asaba
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