Advancement Of Cooperative Education; Problems And Prospects (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri, Imo State)
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This research focuses on the determination of the extent of manpower training for cooperative development in higher institution of learning. The objective of the study was to specifically determine the student’s enrolment and graduation rates and also to evaluate the training programme of the Institution with particular reference to Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri Imo State. Also considered was the problem facing the university development of Cooperative education. Data were collected from the Admission and Records sections and Department of Cooperative and Rural Development of the Polytechnic. The study revealed that the course contents of the Department need some adjustments so as to raise the standard. Again, most graduates of the Department are being marginalized in the labour market. There is the lack of relevant textbooks, lectures and other study materials, which have all reduced efficiency in the training programmes. Recommendation made include review of the course contents, publicity about the Cooperative increased number of Lectures and textbooks and non-intervention by the government are all measures, streamlines by the study to be applied in order to rekindle the interest of students and consequently increase the number of application and students intake of the Department.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Table of Contents vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Objective of the Study 5
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study 6
1.5 Hypothesis 7
1.6 Definition of Terms 7
2.0 Literature Review 9
2.1 The Nature of Cooperative Societies 9
2.2 Meaning of Cooperative Education 10
2.3 Cooperative Education Development in
Institutions and Educational organization. 13
2.4 Problems of Cooperative Education 17
2.5 Effects and Prospects of Cooperative Education 18
3.0 Research Design and Methodology 25
3.1 Sources of Data 25
3.1.2 Secondary Data 26
3.2 Population and Sample Size 26
3.3 Sample Size Allocation 28
3.4 Methods of Data Analysis 28
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis 30
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation 40
5.1 Findings 41
5.2 Conclusion 41
5.3 Recommendations 42
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The spirit of cooperative has been a common feature among Nigerians from earliest time. This has always been manifested in the existence of traditional cooperative institutions that cut across all the ethnic groups that made up today Nigeria.
The formal or modern cooperatives came into being in Nigeria as a result of the enactment of a cooperative society ordinance in 1935 by the then colonial administration. On this ordinance stands, the legal framework for the existence of cooperative organization and movement all over the country.
All appraisals of these modern cooperative societies. Organizations or movements reveal a very low rate of performance in all its areas of operations since its production in 1935. One of the major reasons adduced by the researcher is that there has been lack of available manpower to actually handle the activities, operations and organization societies, just like the other business organizations found across the nation. It was also observed that cooperative movement has witnessed a gradual but steady development at any stage enjoying an over whelming government support probably because government saw cooperative organization as a good instrument for achieving economic and social development especially in rural areas which constitute a greater percentage of the entire country.
Secondly, with the promulgation of the first cooperative society’s Act in 1935, the training of relevant manpower was ensured by the appointment in 1935 of a register and the establishment of Department of Cooperatives in different areas. From this time, government has been playing a leading role in the direction of manpower training and development for cooperatives and between 1935 and 1950 a minimal growth was recorded, but by 1951 a little higher level of manpower developmental growth was recorded too. Government provides training facilities in auxiliary trades like textiles, pottery and brick post training resettlement.
Today cooperative education has been given much publicity in Nigeria by both state and federal governments. Arising from this, t he first cooperative school the cooperative staff training school, was established by colonial government in 1942 at Ibadan, Western Nigeria. Its main task was to train government cooperative inspectors and auditors who were employed by the regional government on Nigeria in 1957, the school was renamed Ibadan Cooperative College. This federal institution remained the only cooperative school in Nigeria until 1961 when established the Eastern Cooperative College at Imo State. This college ceased to exist as a result of the Nigerian Biafra war, which ended in 1970. Between 1942 and 1976, both Federal and State Government established cooperative colleges which awarded certificates and diploma in cooperative studies at Imo, Ibadan, Enugu, Zaria, Kaduna, Sokoto, Kwara, Ondo, Benue and others to mention but a few. The courses offered by these colleges were very much practically oriented with very little theoretical contents. By 1975, the Kaduna Polytechnic started offering courses in cooperatives in basic certificates, higher certificates and by later 1980’s in post graduate Diploma.
Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri, Imo State started offering full National Diplomas and Higher National Diplomas in cooperative studies from 2002. It is also to be noted that the various Department of Agricultural Economics of the universities of Ibadan, Ife, Nsukka, Port-Harcourt offer some course in Cooperatives to their students. In 1985, the then Anambra State University of Technology (ASUT) started a full time B.Sc programme in Cooperatives and Rural Development.
Despite all these efforts by governments and institutions, the research became interested in this topic as a result of numerous questions from many quarters as to whether the cooperative movement actually plays the role expected to them in solving the socio-economic problems of the community.
Housewives today complain about the scarcity and non-availability of some essential commodities. The men fold complains about the scarcity and non-availability of beer at reasonable prices, the general public complains that cooperative operative like a closed up organization to the exclusion of non-members. From the problems mentioned above, the researcher wondered why despite emphasis placed on cooperative education and development cooperative shops and workshops couldn’t be seen along the streets of Imo and other towns in the state. It is in a bid to ascertain the actual involvement of Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri in the provision of cooperative manpower training and areas of possible re-firm and improvement that this study is being conducted.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
For the modern cooperatives have existed for over five decades in the nations steam of social and economic system. However, there has been constant and persistent assertions that the level of Cooperative Development in this country has been far from satisfactory in its entirety, and there manifested in the serious problems of mismanagement of funds, lack of efficient accounting system and control, apathy and disinterestedness among members of both primary and secondary cooperatives societies that cut across the country.
One of the reasons believed to be responsible for these is the lack of higher and skilled manpower to handle the professional duties, and running of these cooperative societies. This has consequently made the level of cooperative development in the country to remain stagnant all over the years.
This study therefore, concentrates on an investigation into cooperative development in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri and make recommendations to remedy the present situation in the country as it effects cooperatives.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- To determine whether the Polytechnic community feels the impact of the cooperative education offered in the Polytechnic.
- To determine whether the prospect available to graduates of cooperatives are known.
- To determine the contributions of cooperatives education to cooperative growth.
- To identify the problems militating against effective implementation of cooperative education.
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
The scope of this study covers the past and present activities and efforts of institutions of higher learning in the development of cooperative education with specific reference to the Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri. In the institution, the relevance, of the courses taught was all examined. Also considered were students enrolment and other problems affecting students, staff and programme itself.
The major constraints faced include bad timing of interviews by both students and faced include bad timing of interviews by both students and lecturers as some easily failed to keep data’s with the researcher to outright refused to grant such interviews. Again, finance posed serious problem to the researchers income of this work. Most information needed were not readily made available as one had to search through many cupboards and office files for many days just for a single information that would have otherwise been gotten under five minutes in normal situations. Another vital problem during the period of this study was time.
A research of this kind is both analytic and investigative. Therefore much time is required to undergo all the processes involved so as to achieve better result. But in the case of t his research, the period mapped for it was not enough to apply all the necessary processes involved in the study.
Hi: Cooperative education has made much impact on the development of cooperative.
Ho: Cooperative education has made no impact on the development of cooperative.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Cooperative education has been defined differently by many authors of past and contemporary societies. But all their views revolve around one central theme that cooperative education means knowledge of the meaning, objective and running of cooperative society. The duties of the members and the committees and the relevant sections of the cooperative law all of which can be imparted directly or indirectly formally and informally and about unconsciously in course of normal operation in the business of the study. Formal means of cooperative education can be acquired through lectures, seminars etc.
COOPERATIVE SOCIETY: It is important to note at this juncture that the term cooperative society and cooperative are often used interchangeable. However there is a line of distinction between the two while cooperative society is actually the form or type of cooperative on the other hand refers to the society, which is registered and is a corporate body and the member group or the totality of their enterprises or households. In general, cooperative society can be said to be an association of persons with variable membership and variable capital who have poded themselves or help basis to form a business enterprises which seeks to solve the socio-economic problems by directly providing goods and services to them in their capacity, and either the owner/customers or owner/employers of the cooperative enterprises.
MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT: Human resources development has been defined cooperative as the process of increasing the knowledge, skills and capacities of the people in a society. In economic terms, it could be described as the accumulation of human capital and its effective investment in the development of an economy. In the political terms, human resources development prepares people for adult participation in political process and in social and cultural terms. The development of human resources help people to life fuller and richer lives less bound by tradition. The process of human resources development can also be said to be formation of an individual for a fuller life in the society.
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