Influence Of Administrative Strategies For Controlling Examination Malpractice In Secondary Schools

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Influence Of Administrative Strategies For Controlling Examination Malpractice In Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out on the influence of administrative strategies for controlling examination malpractice in secondary schools using Ekeremor local government area of Bayelsa State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers and principals of some selected secondary schools in Ekeremor local government area of Bayelsa State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 63 respondents and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using mean score tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the causes of examination malpractice in secondary schools include; poor teaching /learning habits, poor logistics for examinations, the desire to satisfy parents ambition, unpreparedness of students for examinations, students lack of self confidence, peer group influence, and benefits derived by vendors of examination papers. The study also revealed that the management strategies used by principals in controlling examination malpractices in secondary schools include; placing such students on punishment for a number of days, checking students before they enter the examination hall, inviting parents to school to discuss the conduct of their wards, seating arrangement should be such that one seat is far from other, having adequate number of invigilators and supervisors, and making use of CCTV in examination hall. Therefore, it is recommended that concerted efforts should be made to properly acquaint staff and students with regulations governing examination conduct in the schools. Towards this end, workshops and orientation programmes should be carried out periodically to acquaint staff with their duties as examiners and invigilators and students of their expected preparation for, and conduct at examinations. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Every patriotic citizen of any nation should be concerned about the subject of ethics in our everyday life. Because ethics is the only notion that projects morality and positive value orientation in all human activities, this is true. Ethics may successful adjudicate the nature of ultimate value and the norms of human conduct as right or bad. Ethics principles aim to set acceptable norms or standards of behaviour against which an individual’s behavior may be measured. Since the beginning of time, every human person has been seen as a moral agent capable of distinguishing between good and evil, and is accountable for his or her actions. Regrettably, ethical norms have steadily shifted throughout time, and man has willfully chosen evil above good. As a result, extensive attempts are made in many forums to investigate people’s actions of omission or conduct. Exam malpractice is one of these crimes, which has been highlighted as an incurable sore in most educational institutions, particularly in Nigeria. Nigeria is a country where examination results are utilized as a criterion for admission to higher institutions of learning and employment. Thus, students struggle to achieve good grades as a means of meeting the standards in whatever way possible. As a result, there is a significant rate of examination malpractice. A conscious violation of the norms and regulations governing a certain examination by an individual, group of people, or institution is known as examination malpractice. School ethics are intended to give all students and lecturers with equitable teaching and learning opportunities in order to meet the school’s aims and objectives in particular, as well as the national education goals in general (Nwakpa, 2010). As a result, engaging in exams malpractice equates to failing to achieve educational objectives. Examination malpractices, according to Asinya (2012), are widespread and unprecedented violations of norms and regulations governing internal and public examinations, from the scheduling of such exams through their administration, marking, and grading, as well as the distribution of results and issuing of certificates. This immoral behavior has infiltrated the fabric of the students, according to Dalton (2006), as varied styles and approaches are used to aid themselves and their fellow students in exchange of/for financial fulfillment. With the introduction of various styles and methods such as impersonation, thuggery, hooliganism, and physical assault, the use of mercenaries and the delay in the start of the examination, spying or giraffing, bringing prohibited materials to the examination halls, configured calculators, illegal communications, and the exchange of answer booklets, or question papers, Dalton, 2006; Alutu, & Aluede, 2005). In secondary schools, the rate at which examination misconduct has increased is disturbing. With the advent of Information and Communication Technology (1CT), the threat has become more sophisticated, with students employing electronic devices to cheat in exams. This, to a significant measure, reflects the genuine depth of corruption, moral decay, and diversity that our society has acquired. In view of the above, this study seeks to assess the influence of administrative strategies for controlling examination malpractice in secondary schools.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Exam malpractice on the part of students, is clearly not a new phenomenon in academic schools. Impersonation, thuggery, hooliganism, and physical assault are examples of unethical behavior. Other examples include using mercenaries and delaying the start of the examination, spying or giraffing, bringing forbidden materials to the examination halls, rigged calculators, illegal communications, and exchanging answer booklets, tests, or question papers. The degradation in the standard and quality of education has come from these indecent actions and activities in secondary education. Due to the reduction in the quality of education in secondary schools, different empirical research have been conducted on how to handle test malpractice in order to attain qualitative education (Alutu, & Aluede,2005). Despite these findings, the rise in examination malpractice in secondary schools has continued unabated (Dalton, 2006). This raises the question of whether there are strategies for controlling examination malpractices in educational institutions have been identified. Based on the aforementioned, this study will assess the influence of administrative strategies for controlling examination malpractice in secondary schools.


1.3 Objective of the Study

Generally, this study will assess the influence of administrative strategies for controlling examination malpractice in secondary schools. Specifically, the study will;

  1. Investigate the causes of examination malpractice in secondary schools.
  2. Investigate the forms of examination malpractice prevalent in secondary schools.
  3. Assess the management strategies used by principals in controlling examination malpractices in secondary schools.
  4. Determine whether the strategies adopted by principals for the control of examination malpractices in secondary school is effective.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the causes of examination malpractice in secondary schools?
  2. What are the forms of examination malpractice prevalent in secondary schools?
  3. What are the management strategies used by principals in controlling examination malpractices in secondary schools?
  4. Is the strategies adopted by principals for the control of examination malpractices in secondary school effective?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The strategies adopted by principals for the control of examination malpractices in secondary school is not effective.
  • Ha: The strategies adopted by principals for the control of examination malpractices in secondary school is effective.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be useful to the government since it will advise them on how to offer suitable facilities for schools in order to boost the teaching-learning process. It will be beneficial to tertiary institutions’ authorities since it will ensure that every student receives a handbook on code of conduct, and the signature of an anti-social form by students should be required for admission and registration.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of administrative strategies for controlling examination malpractice in secondary schools.

Geographically, the study will be conducted among secondary schools in Ekeremor local government area of Bayelsa State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.

In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Examination:

This is an educational assessment intended to measure a test-taker’s knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics.

Students:

A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution and who is under learning with goals of acquiring knowledge, developing professions and achieving easy employment at a particular field.

Examination Malpractice:

This is any misconduct or improper practice in any examination with a view to obtaining good results through fraudulent action.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of administrative strategies for controlling examination malpractice in secondary schools using Ekeremor local government area of Bayelsa State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the influence of administrative strategies for controlling examination malpractice in secondary schools using Ekeremor local government area of Bayelsa State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to investigate the causes of examination malpractice in secondary schools, investigate the forms of examination malpractice prevalent in secondary schools, assess the management strategies used by principals in controlling examination malpractices in secondary schools, and determine whether the strategies adopted by principals for the control of examination malpractices in secondary school is effective.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 63 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are teachers and principals of some selected secondary schools in Ekeremor local government area of Bayelsa State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The causes of examination malpractice in secondary schools include; poor teaching /learning habits, poor logistics for examinations, the desire to satisfy parents ambition, unpreparedness of students for examinations, students lack of self confidence, peer group influence, and benefits derived by vendors of examination papers.
  2. The forms of examination malpractice prevalent in secondary schools include; bringing-in prepared answers into examine hall, copying other students work, hiring other people, writing in special centers, writing on body parts, use of cell phones and calculators, use of hidden notes in restrooms, exchanging written answers, and replacing old script with new one.
  3. The management strategies used by principals in controlling examination malpractices in secondary schools include; placing such students on punishment for a number of days, checking students before they enter the examination hall, inviting parents to school to discuss the conduct of their wards, seating arrangement should be such that one seat is far from other, having adequate number of invigilators and supervisors, and making use of CCTV in examination hall.
  4. The strategies adopted by principals for the control of examination malpractices in secondary school is effective.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Pending the provision of adequate hall and seats for examinations, adequate number of invigilators should be assigned to examination room (the policy of a chief invigilator and at least one invigilator to every 40 students should be adhered to).
  2. All activities relating to examinations such as question paper production, invigilation, marking and result collation as well as computation should be handled with a high sense of responsibility by those concerned.
  3. Concerted efforts should be made to properly acquaint staff and students with regulations governing examination conduct in the schools. Towards this end, workshops and orientation programmes should be carried out periodically to acquaint staff with their duties as examiners and invigilators and students of their expected preparation for, and conduct at examinations.
  4. For the many examination offenders now and the few that would still violate even after self-discipline has been enshrined in the long run, appropriate sanctions should be applied.
  5. Learning facilities such as textbooks, library equipment, laboratories, classroom with enough spaces and setting arrangement should be made available for effective teaching and learning among the teachers and the students.

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