Adaptation Of Locally Cast Material For Peugeot 406 Piston

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME

Adaptation Of Locally Cast Material For Peugeot 406 Piston


Abstract


A tricycle is a three wheel vehicle use in conveying goods and human from one place to another especially is the rural and farm area absorbing energy from moving system, drakes are generally applied to a rotating axle or wheels but may also take other form such as a moving fluid. Brake pedals are irregular in shape in at least the direction. Casting of the brake pedal is to reduce the weight, the sand casting is a process by which sand is use to prepare the mould. The pattern is made with a manna wood. Aluminiun was used to east the part. During the casting of the product to increase the strength of the aluminium, silicon was added to it during melting. Specimen were also produced which was latter machined and due for tensile test.


Table of Content


  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of content
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Statement of problem
  • 1.2 Aim and objectives of the study
  • 1.3 Scope of the study
  • 1.4 Justification of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature review

  • 2.1 Background of the study
  • 2.1.1 Type of tricycle
  • 2.1.1.2 Recumbent delta Tricycle
  • 2.1.1.3 Recumbent Tadpole
  • 2.1.1.4 Recumbent hand crank
  • 2.1.1.5 Recumbent Tandem
  • 2.1.1.6 Special Purposes
  • 2.1.17 Tricycle Rickshaw
  • 2.1.1.8 Freight tricycle
  • 2.2 Important of tricycle
  • 2.3 Casting
  • 2.4 Sand Casting
  • 2.5 Moulding sand used
  • 2.5.1 Refractoriness
  • 2.5.2 Chemical inertness
  • 2.5.3 Permeability
  • 2.5.4 Surface finish
  • 2.5.5 Cohesiveness
  • 2.5.6 Flow ability
  • 2.5.7 Collapsibility
  • 2.5.8 Availability
  • 2.6 Aluminium

Chapter Three

3.0 Experimental Procedure

  • 3.1 Pattern making
  • 3.2 Casting of the product
  • 3.3.1 Crucible Pot
  • 3.3.2 Crucible Furnace
  • 3.3.3 Drag and Cope
  • 3.3.4 Rammer
  • 3.3.5 Scrapper
  • 3.3.6 Charcoal
  • 3.3.7 Shovel
  • 3.4 Steps involves in the casting operation
  • 3.4.1 Sad preparation for moulding
  • 3.4.2 Melting of Aluminium

Chapter Four

4.0 Experimental Procedure

  • 4.1 Lather machine
  • 4.2 Universal testing machine
  • 4.3 Results
  • 4.4 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusions
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • Reference

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Brakes are generally applied to rotating wheels and may also take other forms such as the surface of a moving fluid. Some vehicles use a combination of braking mechanisms such as drag racing cars with both wheel brakes and a parachute or airplanes with both wheel brakes and drag flaps raised into the air during landing.

A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle wheel, axle or to prevent its motion most often accomplished by mean of friction.
The brake pedal is composed of two half pieces and facing and joined to one another by two welding lines or beads which prior to their welding or subsequent to the same have been suitably bent and to whose brake pedal body the necessary finishing operation have been applied, such as the elimination of external projections caused by the welding and those possible ones on making orifice for the passing of the articulation axis of the body and other orifices such as orifice, for other complementary passages. The joining of said half pieces and is done by facing their two corresponding edges or by partial juxtaposition of their respective ends, these half pieces being out of phase with each other.

Brake pedal bodies are frequently irregular in shape in at least one direction which has given rise to the problem that are difficult to solve, which repercussions on both the tooling, the manufacture and the final product, all of which negative affects the cost of the brake pedal body.

At present much tricycle have brake pedal that is made of steel. A brake pedal may consist of three major components namely brake pedal, rubber foot and switch pad contact. Each brake pedal component has to undergo a series of sheet forming processes before assembled together by welding process. Changing the material of a brake pedal to lighter materials such as aluminum may affect the final geometries and the manufacturing process requirement.

In aluminum alloy brake pedal production, casting has an advantage of producing in single process and suitable to substitute the original manufacturing process (combination of press forming and welding process). However, castability of brake pedal should be investigate and analyze early in design in order to form the component without formation of effects such as cracks, segregations, pores or misruns. There are three major approaches for castability analysis process simulation, parametric cost estimation and feature based castability checks. Geometric features such as under cuts, holes, sharp corners and hot spots were recognized from a solid model of the casting and analyzed by a number of dimensionless criteria function. These criteria were developed through a detailed study of design heuristics used by practicing engineer and were whiten as functions of geometric attributes of component and tool features.

An original brake pedal design was evaluated and the geometries that were critical modified and redesign to a new brake pedal design. The comparison between these two designs was carried out to prove that the modified brake pedal design is better in terms of castability.


1.1 Statement of Problem

The evaluation of brake pedal has been impressive, and has included many technologies throughout the years. In all new developments to the braking system the number one priority is to improve auto safety and efficiency with little cost.

Over time, the original brake pedal have welded part and further research carried out show that casting can eliminate the following from the original brake pedal;

  1. Welded joints are more brittle and therefore their fatigue strength is less than the member joined which will be eliminated when it is casted.
  2. Due to uneven heating and cooling of the member part during the welding the members may distrust resulting in additional stresses.
  3. Skilled labour uses either electricity or fuel to weld which attracts additional cost.
  4. No provision for expansion and contraction is kept in welded connection and therefore there is possibility of racks.
  5. The inspection of welding work is more difficult, complex and costly than the casting work.

In addition, the Chevrolet motor company also stressed the fact that the original brake pedal is too heavy which make the tricycle heavy and with the casting method, it will help to reduce the weight of the brake pedal and also the weight of the tricycle.

The original brake pedal is too expensive to purchase in the market to replace the original one when its goes wear. With the help of local casting, it will make it available and cheap to purchase in the market.


1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study

  1. To reduce the weight of the brake pedal assembly.
  2. Reduction of machining requirement compared to the original steel assembly.
  3. Elimination of the welding and finishing operations required for the original steel welded assembly.
  4. To reduce the cost and the time of the production process.
  5. To reduce the risk of serious lower limb injuries the driver in a frontal collision.

1.3 Scope of the Study

The scope of study covers only the casted brake pedal produced for experimental purpose at the polytechnic foundry workshop.


1.4 Justification of the Study

  1. To examined whether the aluminium can withstand high pressure.
  2. To make alternative for the original brake pedal without cost
  3. To improve the casting process
  4. To eliminate the welding joint

Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusions

Designing and production of the brake pedal shows how good it could have been to be able to manufacture our spare parts in Nigeria. The brake pedal can as well compete favourably with the imported fabricated part and if produce in mass, the cost of production will be far below what is used to buy the imported one and because the metal is casted together instead of joining together by wielding, this makes it more solid and can as well last longer than the joined one. The strength of the product due to the addition of silicon shows that it cannot be easily broken because of the ductile behavior exhibited


5.2 Recommendation

In Nigeria today, the rate at which most of the industries that usually produce spare parts are no more producing is alarming. The Captive founding in most of our industries are not producing too. The big manufacturing plant are either not producing or are producing below capacity. Federal Govt established industries like Ajaokuta Steel plant, Machine tool Oshogbo e.t.c are no more in existence. The small scale industries cannot survive because of the hash economy of the country. All this is affecting the production capacity of the country because spare parts are no longer producing locally. Therefore Govt. should encourage the production of spare parts for our industries.


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