Achieving Effective Productivity In Public Service Through Manpower Planning And Development
The role of manpower planning and development in promoting sustainable development of any nation cannot be underestimated. The socio-economic and political development of Nigeria to a large extent depends on the quality and quantity of existing human resources. This led to the establishment of National Manpower Board (NMB) in 1962 and other subsequent agencies to undertake responsibilities of the Human resource development. Though ideals do not approximate reality, today manpower planning and staff development in Nigerian public sectors had become history. This is partly the nature of dynamics of our political and economic environment, and other internal variables. The implication of this development for Nigeria development in the next century is a mirage. This is because without effective manpower planning and systematic staff development strengthened by deliberate policy and utilization of what has been built; Nigerian development in next century is still a mirage. It is against the backdrop that makes this study imperative. The study is conducted into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the introduction, statement of problem, significance of study, scope and limitation of study, the existing literature on the topic was reviewed in second chapter, it also involve hypotheses and theoretical framework; in chapter three, research design, method of data collection, method of data presentation and analysis were discussed. In chapter four, data collected from the field work were presented and analyzed. The researcher generally summarized the issues on the topic and proffer solution on the identified problems which involve the use of strategic manpower planning process, systematic training, and computerized method in data management in chapter five.
1.1 Background To The Study
Human resources are cardinal element of development. The over all development of a country revolves on the level of manpower utilization. This has made manpower planning and development imperative for any successful organization. Maintaining a competitive edge in any segment where multiple players exist is only possible with people and talent. It has got an important place in the arena of industrialization. Manpower planning and development are two important pillars for achieving effectiveness and efficiency in organization.
It has been observed that both pre and post colonial administrations of Nigeria had failed to accord adequate regard to manpower planning and development. Labour was relegated to background among other factors of production. The human resources planning and staff development for national growth and development were distorted. These affected the availability of human resources for improvement of socio-economic and political development during the first and second national development planning.
This was made clearly in Nnadozie (2004), he states thus; the unrealistic nature of the 1962-68 plan objectives and targets become more apparent when they are juxtaposed with the financial, technical and managerial capabilities of the country.
In recognition of the needs for human resources planning led to introducing of the policy for Manpower Planning and Development in Nigeria at the period of 1960’s and 70’s. Specifically, in the year 1962, federal republic of Nigeria created National manpower board (NMB) with the responsibility for determining the manpower needs and developments. To enhance the manpower need in local government, federal military Government in 1978 selected three universities, University Nigeria, Nsukka, Obefemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife and Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Though ideals do not approximate reality, the socio-economic and political development of Nigeria state has become elusive due to inappropriate and inadequate manpower planning and development. Planning in Nigerian public service has become a gambling affair. Public service in Nigeria especially local government usually embark on manpower planning with inadequate data on the evolutionary trends of an organization, partly on organization’s personnel, external relations, and general organization’s objectives.
Development of workers is no longer a matter of a necessity to much management as a result of inability to forecast future manpower needs in relation to the organizations’ objectives. Training in local government, despite the selection of the universities named above to under take training of local government workers; training is still sporadic, unstructured and unsystematic. There is little emphasis on training for technical and professional staff; such as surveyors, accountants, engineer and doctors. This finally retards the progress of an organization.
The resources of organization are diverse but human resources is recognized as the most important out of other resources required for effective and efficient service delivery in local government. Human resources are the key to rapid socio-economic development and efficient service delivery. In addition, Mwagbala (2005) posits that “it is Human resources of a nation not its capital, nor its material resources that determines the nature of, direction and pace of its socio-economic development. Essentially, nations are built through the creative, productive and innovative hardworking of people. At best financial resources can only facilitates production, but real wealthy is increased by productive labour activity.
The quality of company’s personnel is the single factor that determines whether the organization is going to be successful, whether the organization will realize a satisfactory return on its investment and whether it will reach its basic objectives.
Getting the right caliber of people through the process of recruitment to meet the organization’s need is not just enough; this makes manpower development crucial in an organization. Development of employees in enterprises is associated with long run profitability of organization. Organizational effectiveness is strengthened through workforce development. In other words, it improves employee’s productivity and increases their loyalty to the company and their job satisfaction. Manpower development is a link between the manpower planning and organizations objectives.
In analysis of the above, manpower planning and development are necessary for effective productivity, growth and development. Unless there is planning, event is left to a chance affair, planning minimize risk while taking advantage of opportunities. When adequate arrangement are not being made for future manpower needs of the organization, the organization find itself fighting with emergencies as the manpower needs arises. This may definitely resulted in spending more money for hiring manpower. It also results in procuring wrong personnel which may have devastating effects on the organization.
In a critical analyses of the above, manpower planning and development are path way to sustainable development. In view of this, both private sector and public have to embrace manpower planning and development if Nigeria really wants promote sustainable development. Local government which is regarded as non-functioning sector will
Turn To Functioning Sector If Adequate Emphasis Would Be Accord To Manpower Planning And Development.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
The quality and quantity of services delivery of local government for two decade now had generated national crisis. There have been sharp drop in effectiveness and efficiency with which local governments discharge their constitutional responsibilities. This is justified by pathetic nature of the high rates of under development in our rural areas. This is as a result of nonchalant attitude of the management and government over human resources planning and development which are essential for any organization which wants to remain relevant in our dynamic society. Organization is established in order to achieve stated objectives or goals. To achieve these objectives, effective human resources must be in place. Since every organization depends on its employees for its survival and accomplishment of its task, manpower planning and development are crucial in all organizations be it private or public sectors especially in local governments where their constitutional responsibilities appear elusive.
Paradoxically in our contemporary society, emphasis has shifted from manpower planning and staff development to controlling and sharing of the national cake meant for implementation of the development projects. Human resources planning are considered as luxury affairs and human resources supply is seen as an elastic item which can be expanded anywhere leading to acute neglect of manpower planning.
Recruitment in local government has turned to political patronage for political aspirant and party loyalist. This has a negative impact on the performance or productivity of organization. Some organizations that embarked on planning usually end up not achieving the objectives as result of inadequate and inaccurate data on personnel profile and on projected objectives. Poor data management abounds in local government because of lack of adequate skilled employee and continued use of manual /filing methods. These have adverse affect on manpower planning.
Further more, there is highly recognized poor human resources development and utilization in various public organizations. There is growing evidence that lack of investment in the development and training of workers is associated with the long-run bankruptcy of organization. In addition, inadequate development of employees contributed to poor performance of local governments in Nigeria. This is traceable to poor human resources management. Human resources management according to Mathis and Jackson (1977) is the design of formal system in an organization to ensure effective use of human talent to accomplish organizational objectives. It is a set of activities directed to attracting development, utilizing and maintaining an effective workforce.
In view of the above, manpower planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, promotion and compensation which are the critical aspects of human resources management had been neglected and manipulated by incompetent personnel managers.
critical analysis of relevant data on the performance of local government in Nigeria in this our contemporary society expose to its totality the chaotic situation which pervaded the whole system as result of negative attitude to human resources planning and development.
Many key officials occupying sensitive positions in local government are new entrants in the system, the worst of it all is that they lack pre-requisite of administration. They assumed the positions through Nigeria system of “whom do you know” and political patronage. Performance of organization cannot be explained to large extent outside those that operate it. This leads to sharp decline in quality and quantity of service delivery.
It is in responds of the above back drop that makes manpower planning and development imperative in this study. The place of manpower planning and development cannot be compromise in the achievement of development in our localities.
The following research questions were raise;
- What is appropriate manpower planning process for effective service delivery in local government service?
- Does recruitment of unqualified personnel influence productivity of local government?
- What is the relationship between development of employee in local government services and employee’s performance?
- What are measures to improve manpower planning process and staff development?
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