Accountability And Corruption In Public Organization (A Case Study Of Isiala Mbao L.G.A Of Imo State)
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This work is dedicated to Almighty God for his loving kindness and for his gift of knowledge
My unquantifiable gratitude goes to Almighty God for his infinite mercies, grace and love. I will not forget to acknowledge the relentless effort of my project supervisor mr. Onwubiko obinna whose suggestions ad advice has been instrumental to the success of my project.
Heaven will never forgive me if I fail to take cognizance of my family members for all they have done for me both morally and financially, my profound gratitude goes to my friends, Nkiruka, Maureen, Adaobi, Delphire, Augustinsa and most especially tinted whp have been my source of inspiration academically.
Finally, I acknowledge my brothers and sisters in the lord that continued to remember me in their daily prayers, I am grateful to them all and I lack words to express my gratitude to God the substance of my life, I appreciate you all.
The issue of corruption and accountability has been a major bone of contention in Nigeria local government council and the citizenry at large. The need for financial products, fidelity and accountability in our local government council can never be over-estimated.
However, form the basis of this research work, the project is presented in five chapters, most of the chapters consists of x-rayed findings, chapter five laid emphasis in the whole work, make recommendations and conclusions and finally draw conclusion.
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Approval Page
- Table Of Contents
- 1.0 Introduction
- 1.1 Background Of Study
- 1.2 Statement Of Problem
- 1.3 Objectives Of Study
- 1.4 Significance Of Study
- 1.5 Scope Of The Study
- 1.6 Limitation Of Study
- 1.7 Definition Of Terms
- 2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 References
- 3.0 Research Design And Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Sources/Methodsa Of Data Collection
- 3.4 Population And Sample Size
- 3.5 Sample Techniques
- 3.6 Methods Of Data Analysis
- 4.0 Presentation And Analysis Of Data
- 4.1 Presentation Of Data
- 4.2 Analysis Of Data
- 4.3 Interpretation Of Results
- 5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary Of Findings
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendations
1.1 Background Of The Study
According to Ndoh and Emezi (1997):our local government originated form indirect rule system introduced by the British colonial government. I t was carried out in the north through the recognized National authority which has the paramount rule of the naïve authority.
Between 1960modernized local government were introduced in place of indirect rule system, though adoption of many laws. This allowed democratic local civil system. However, there was a general nationwide local government reform which Maxwell a turning point in the history and Pattern of local govern throughout the country. The aims and objectives of the reforms as outlined in the guidelines for local governments reform were as follows
- To make approximate services and development activities responsible to the local wishes and initiatives by developing them to local representative bodies.
- To facilitate the exercise of democratic self governance close to the local level of our society and to encourage uncreative and leadership.
- To provide a two way channel of communicative between local communities and government both federal and state.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
Local government as we know was created with the primary aim of bringing government closer to the people as well as mobilizing and encouraging grassroots development and participation. Based on the above frantic efforts has been made by government of local government yet there are problems that is why Ozor (2005:55) opined that the mismanagement of local government funds sometimes with the knowledge government functionaries have been retiring in various tribunals of enquiry throughout the country.”
- What are the causes effects and ramification if corruption and ensure proper accountability in local government council?
- How can government eradicate or lesson corruption and ensure accountability in the government council
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
With reference to the above problem, the study is specifically centered at the following:
- To examine the nature and purpose of the 1970 reform which has national form of nature.
- To examine the significance of accountability in the local government council.
- To critically examine some of the corrupt5 practices, factors that necessitate them, their effects and possible way towards the enhancement of national development.
- To make recommendations that would help to ensure proficiency and accountability as well as reducing corruption in local government council.
1.4 Significance Of Study
Local government has the primary function of implementation of the wishes, programmes, policies, objectives. Ideas and aspirations of the national government in the local level. Okoli (2000:6).
The rural people expect employment of youth form government in other to ameliorate rural-urban migration.
Politicians should bear in mind that the quality of leadership in the determinant of rural development level. The management of local government should not betray the transit reposed on the m. They should say no to corruption.
Finally this study will be of immense help to checkmate the problem of lack of accountability and correspond in local government systems.
1.5 Scope Of The Study
This research work is limited to isiala Mbano local government, due to how large it will be to include other local government that is why isiala mbano local government is chosen as to scope of the study.
1.6 Limitation Of The Study
Most problems of research are lack of funds made nearly that entire research work and cost of materials and transportation to left nothing to write home about. The time frame for the research was another problem that the researcher encountered.
However, despite the problems short listed above, the researchers defined all these constraints in other to produce a research with findings which is presented and useful to the development of our society.
1.7 Definition Of Terms
According to oxford advanced learners Dictionary
Means responsible for our decisions or sections and expected to explain than when required of.
This is proposals for greater police accountability.
Mean dishonest or illegal behavior especially of people in authority.
Connected with ordinary people in society general.
A group of people who form a business club, etc together in order to achieve a particular aim.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.